FOOD SAFETY & SANITATION
INFANT BOTULISM IN HONEY
Angela Indryana (03420100086)
Zefanya Tjokrodiredjo (03420100087)
FOOD TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY
UNIVERSITAS PELITA HARAPAN
Honey is a natural food, mainly composed of a complex mixture of carbohydrates and other minor substances, such as organic acids, amino acids, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and lipids. It has two sources of contamination with microorganisms: primary sources include pollen, the digestive tracts of honey bees, dust, air, soil and nectar; secondary sources are those arising from honey manipulation by people, they ...view middle of the document...
Immature infantile intestinal flora allows ingested spores to germinate, multiply and produce botulinal neurotoxins in the intestinal lumen. Children aged between 2 weeks and 1 year is most susceptible. Honey has been identified both as a dietary risk factor for infant botulism and as a natural reservoir of C. botulinum type A and type B spores.
Approximately 30% of the infant botulism caused by honey was reported in California, while in a French study 6.7% of honey samples were found to be contaminated with C. botulinum while in Cordoba, 7% were positive. Meanwhile, there are some studies reporting lower contamination levels in honey, such as in Washington DC and Argentina where only 2% and 2.3% of contamination levels were reported respectively.
Supernatant filtration was used in the main journal (Saraiva et. al., 2012) to identify the types of botulinum toxin in order to detect the Clostridum botulinum strain in the honey sample which causes infant botulism. Meanwhile, the medium enrichment broths used for cultivation were Cooked Meat Medium (CMM) and Rosenow cysteine medium. The identification result of honey sample from Portugal showed that the toxin present was the type B botulinum toxin. In one of the supporting journal (Kuplulu et. al., 2004), different methods of sample preparation were used and compared. The methods were direct addition (DA), dilution centrifugation (DC), and supernatant filtration (SF). The CMM enrichment media was also used, yet there was also another type of media used which was Trypticase Peptone Glucose Yeast broth (TPGY). This supporting journal’s result showed that the DC method was more efficient than DA and SF method as false negative results were observed with the DA method and negative results were obtained from the SF method. The CMM enrichment broth was also more preferable than TPGY and was more commonly used in studies concerning isolation of C. botulinum in honey. Nevertheless, there is also another method of isolation for C. botulinum being used by the other supporting journal (Nevas et. al., 2005) which is the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method.
Moreover, according to Nevas et. al. (2005), as the supporting journals, there are actually 6 types of toxin caused by different strains: A, B, C, E, F and G. Types A and B, together with types C and G are the majority cause of infant botulism. C. botulinum spores type B was also frequently found in Denmark and Norway honey samples, although there were many cases of botulism found in other countries without the specification type of C. botulinum. One of the factors that caused honey to be contaminated with the C. botulinum, which explained by Kupulu et. al. (2004), as the supporting journal, is the behavior of honeybees (Apis mellifera). Honeybees tend to prefer a dirty source of water to a cleaner one, which may be due to its odor and salt content. It is likely that honeybees collect water from areas contaminated with...