This report aims to describe how relevant theories of communication can be applied to different health and social care settings. It will also cover how the communication process is influenced by values and cultural factors, the range of communication skills used to interact with service users and techniques and strategies that could be used to support service users with specific communication needs.How relevant theories of communication can be applied to different health and social care settings.
Communication can be described as ‘the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior’ (medical dictionary, 2013). It is very important to have ...view middle of the document...
Pavlov discovered classical conditioning, which is that events that happen together will learn to be associated. Bandura discovered social learning, which is that behaviour is learned from role models or imitation. This approach would work well with children as they like to be rewarded, they associated events together (school bell ringing means end of class) and they learn their behaviour through their parents and tend to copy what they do.
The cognitive approach (Beck and Ellis) assumes that what people think and believe is rational, although sometimes their thoughts can be distorted and can then go on to lead difficulties in socialisation and behaviour. Beck had a view that ‘thoughts influence feelings, which in turn influence behaviour’ (Billingham et al, 2010. Pg. 294). Ellis believes that neurotic and emotional problems are primarily driven from our thoughts and that the cognitive approach gets to the root of the problem. This involves monitoring the negative thoughts using evidence from the person’s life and challenging their distorted thoughts by thinking more about the positives in their lives than the negatives. This approach would work well with adolescence because this group usually has difficulty understanding themselves and that what they are doing is right.
The psychoanalytic approach (Freud 1856-1939) focuses on ‘the emotional and personality aspects of human development rather than the learning or intellectual areas’ (Walsh et al, 2000). Freud proposed that there were three levels of the mind; the conscious, which is thoughts that are currently the focus of attention, the preconscious, which is information that can be retrieved easily from memory and brought conscious, and the unconscious, which is information that is almost impossible to bring into the conscious awareness. Freud assumed that the human mind was divided up into three components; the ID, the ego and the superego. The ID is when the mind says ‘I need to have or do’, the ego is the reality and the balance between the ID and the superego and the superego is the moral high ground. The ego protects the individual from stress and anxiety by using a defense mechanism. ‘The list of basic defense mechanism includes: denial, displacement, repression, regression, projection, intellectualization, rationalization, reaction formation, sublimation, introjection, identification, isolation of affect, conversion, fantasy’ (freudpyschoanalysis.com, 2015).
How the communication process is influenced by values and cultural factors
Communication is extremely necessary for the smooth running of any institution. Across different health care settings there are many people with different backgrounds, beliefs and values. ‘Problems of communication and poor dialogue typically arise when persons from different social and cultural contexts fail to understand each other properly’ (immi.se, 2008). In today’s society we work with, and look after, a lot of multi-cultures. To enable effective...