GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT
UNIVERSITY PUTRA MALAYSIA
FIRST TRIMESTER 2011/2012
NAME OF LECTURER: DATO’ DR. ZULKIFLI IDRIS
“MOTIVATION IN THE WORKPLACE”
NAME OF STUDENT: MOHD HAFIZI BIN ABDUL FATAH
MATRIC NO: GM04509
In today business world, many business managers are not aware of the effects that motivation can have on their business. Therefore, it is very important for the graduating students of University of Putra Malaysia to learn and understand the factors that determine positive motivation in the workplace.
Regardless whether the business is MNC (multinational company), or SME (small medium enterprise), every ...view middle of the document...
Hence, employees in the workplace will do what they want to do but because of motivation. They only do what motivate them to do. Whether it cleaner, officer, executive and etc. They all had driven through by external stimulus.
Major theories of motivation
Maslow’s theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire for the higher level of needs. This basic need is called physiological needs and required to sustain life such as air, water, and sleep. According to Maslow’s theory if such needs are not satisfied them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not felt until one has met the needs basic to one’s bodily functioning.
Whereby self-actualization is the summit of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, it is the quest of reaching one’s full potential as a person. Unlike lower level needs, this need is never fully satisfied as one grows psychologically there are always new opportunities to continue to grow. Self-actualized people tend to have needs such as truth, justice, wisdom and meaning. Self-actualized person have frequent occurrences of peak experiences, which are energized moments of profound happiness and harmony. According to Maslow, only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self-actualization.
The followings are some example of implications of Maslow’s theory in the workplace:
Physiological needs: provide lunch breaks, rest breaks, and wages that are sufficient to purchase the essential of life.
Safety needs: provide a safe working environment, retirement benefits, and job security.
Social needs: create a sense of community via team based projects and social events.
Esteem needs: recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position.
Self-actualization: provide employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential.
However, at any time different people may be motivated by entirely different factors. Which also driven by cultures. Malaysia’s working culture is not the same as in Australia, United Kingdom and even Japan. To motivate an employee, the manager must be able to recognize the needs level at which the employee is operating, and use those needs as levers of motivation.
According to some scholars, they said Maslow’s hierarchy lacks of scientific support to his model. Even though lack scientific support, it is quite well known and is the first theory of motivation to which many people they are exposed.
The expectancy theory model
In business, physiological needs at lower level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, money is a motivator. However, some scholar like Herzberg argued that money is tending to have a motivating effect on employee that lasts only for a short period which he did mentioned in his two factor model of motivation.
Maslow has money at the lowest level of the hierarchy ad shows other needs are better...