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Compare And Contrast Dna And Rna

968 words - 4 pages

Compare and contrast DNA and RNA. Discuss why humans did not evolve with one central repository of DNA, but rather it is replicated throughout the body?

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): It is helical double stranded nucleic acid made of complementary purine and pyramidines supported by deoxy ribose sugars and phospodiester structures. (5 Prime to 3 prime). Eukaryotic DNA material.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA): It is a single nucleic acid supported by adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil supported by ribose sugars. mRNA, rRNA and tRNA.
Double standed RNA Viruses are also with RNA as genetic material
a) Makes a complementary strand of RNA ---------> primase
Primase is an RNA polymerase that ...view middle of the document...

DNA structure is more stable for alkaline hydrolysis since, deoxyribose sugar is less reactive due to the presence of C-H bonds. DNA has smaller grooves that resist from enzymes to attack. In contrast, ribose sugar in RNA is more reactive by means C-(OH) bonds since, it is not stable in alkaline conditions. RNA has larger grooves that make it more susceptible to enzymes attack. The helix geometry of DNA is B-form, it can be protected by tight packing in the nucleus. In contrast, helix geometry of RNA is A-form, It continuously made, degrade and reused. RNA structure is resistant to UV-rays damage, unlike DNA which is more susceptible for UV damage. DNA can form supercoils and circles due to its double helix twists, in contrast RNA can form hairpin loops. See below figure for better understanding obtained from different source.
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The main difference between DNA and RNA is the sugar present in the molecules. While the sugar present in a RNA molecule is ribose, the sugar present in a molecule of DNA is deoxyribose. Deoxyribose is the same as ribose, except that the former has one more OH.

DNA does not usually exist as a single molecule, but instead as a tightly-associated pair of molecules. These two long strands entwine like vines, in the shape of a double helix. This arrangement of DNA strands is called antiparallel. The asymmetric ends of DNA strands are referred to as the 5' (five prime) and 3' (three prime) ends. One of the major differences between DNA and RNA is the sugar, with 2-deoxyribose being replaced by the alternative pentose sugar ribose in RNA. The four bases found in DNA are adenine (abbreviated A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). A fifth pyrimidine base, called uracil (U), usually takes the place of thymine in RNA and...

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