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"Compare And Contrast The Three Models Of Memory"

1221 words - 5 pages

The cognitive approach in psychology deals with human thought and mental processes such as memory, remembering and problem solving. The cognitive approach is interested in how people take in information, how they mentally represent it and how they store it. It also looks at how the information is perceived and processed and how integrated patterns of behaviour occur.Memory is fundamental to our lives, we have to recall who we are, recognise the faces of everyone we meet and remember how to move and communicate. Several models of the way in which memory is structured and how it functions have been advanced and although there are many differences between the models, they all view memory as a ...view middle of the document...

Long Term Memory (LTM) has an unlimited amount of information which can be store which can last a long time; some psychologists believe that memories are never truly forgotten from LTM they simply cannot be easily retrieved at will. Also the mode of storage in the LTM is meaning fullness if you understand information you are more likely to remember it. This is in contrast to STM where, if you recall, sound is important, and remembering is much more dependent on precise recall.Atkinson and Shiffrin regarded the stores as the structural components of the model, but also proposed a number of control processes, such as attention, coding and rehearsal, which operate in conjunction with the stores.Not all psychologists consider it useful to distinguish between short term and long term memory. Levels of Processing is one of such model: it sees memory as a single dimension rather than a series of separate stores. The main principle of this model is that we process information in different ways and the more deeply we process it, the more likely it is to be stored in memory and able to be recalled. According to the levels of processing framework, stimulus information is processed at multiple levels simultaneously depending upon its characteristics. Furthermore, the "deeper" the processing, the more that will be remembered. For example, information that involves strong visual images or many associations with existing knowledge will be processed at a deeper level. Similarly, information that is being attended to receives more processing than other stimuli/events. The theory also supports the finding that we remember things that are meaningful to us because this requires more processing than meaningless stimuli.Information is more easily readily transferred to LTM if it is considered, understood and related to past memories to gain meaning than if it is merely repeated. This degree of consideration was termed the "depth of processing" - the deeper information was processed, the longer the memory trace would last.Craik and Lockhart gave three examples of levels at which verbal information could be processed:Structural level- e.g. merely paying attention to what the words look like (shallow processing)Phonetic level- processing the sound of the wordsSemantic level- considering the meaning of words (deep processing).Finally the last model of memory is reconstructive memory, in contrast to much cognitive research on memory, which focuses on quantitative tests of how many randomly selected digits, words or nonsense syllables can be remembered under strictly controlled...

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