Compare And Contrast Two Theories/Models Of Relationships And Show How They Might Be Utilised By A Therapist Who Is Engaged In Couples Counselling

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Compare and contrast two theories/models of relationships and show how they might be utilised by a therapist who is engaged in couples counselling.
Every human being experiences different relationships throughout their lives whether it is with their parents, siblings, external family at the start of their life or with friends through adolescence and even going into adulthood with their partner and then possibly their own children. For an individual to have any type of relationship they need to have some sort of bond. Issues can arise between individuals for many different reasons as their personalities develop and mature.
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While the infant gains knowledge of its environment they begin to be aware of behaviours that will fulfil their needs for example the have the innate ability to cry, which through time the begin to realise they gain attention and their needs are met. This can be associated with operant conditioning as the infant repeats the behaviour for the desired response.
Bowlby, Harlow and Lorenz established the evolutionary theory of attachment believe that infants have infants are born with the instant ability to form attachment for survival. These psychologists believe that the infant uses their innate abilities for care and response not food. Their studies showed that attachment as a child acted as blueprint for relationships as an adult so any disruption could have a detrimental effect. The studies also showed that attachment was developed over the first five years of an infant’s life. When attachment is not secured during this period the effect on the development of the infant is severe, possibly developing behavioural issues and decreasing their abilities.
Harry Harlow conducted numerous experiments on attachment using monkeys during the 1950’s. Harlow and Zimmerman (1958) contradicted the behaviourist approach to attachment where food is the primary reinforcer and the care giver is the secondary reinforcer with the Rhesus Monkey experiment. His findings showed that attachment with the monkeys was developed in the first year of their lives.
The monkeys were observed in two different environments, the first being infant monkeys reared in isolation. The monkeys that were placed in this situation had detrimental effects as some died and the ones that survived suffered from abnormal behaviour that continued throughout their life making it hard to relate to other monkeys. The second group were placed with surrogate mothers; either a bare wire mother of wire mother covered with terry towelling, a feeding bottle was attached to the bare wire mother. The monkeys that were placed in this environment spent more time with the terry towelling mother and only went to the bare wire mother when they were hungry, when they had finishing feeding they would return to the terry towelling mother. During the experiment frightening objects were placed in the cage, the infant monkey would seek comfort form the terry towelling mother. Harlow removed the terry towelling mother on occasions and the infant monkey would start to explore. The findings back the Evolutionary theory of attachment as it is the security and comfort the monkey wanted from the caregiver and is a contrast to the behaviourist approach as the caregiver that was providing food was not the one they were severely attached to.
Harlow concluded that the monkeys needed something that they were able to...

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