There are three main types of schools of thought that are noted in the field of philosophy. The three schools are known as continental, pragmatic, and analytic philosophies. Pragmatism and analytic philosophy are uniquely American movements because they are way different in theory to the European pragmatism and analytic philosophy, known as continental philosophy.
In this weeks reading, it states that that pragmatism is an American theoretical movement that was made up in the 1870s by C.S. Peirce. Pragmatists refused to believe the idea that there is such a thing as an independent and modifiable truth. “Pragmatists rejected the idea that there is such a thing as fixed, absolute truth, truth is relative to a time and place and purpose and is thus ever changing in the light of new data” (p 206). Pragmatists believed that the truth was constantly changing as new ideas were introduced. Pragmatists also believed ...view middle of the document...
Russell did come up with a mathematical theory know as logicism; “all mathematical truths can be proved from principles of formal logic” (p 210). American pragmatism and analytical philosophy are well balanced on a scientific approach to argument and analysis.
European philosophies on the above stated matter were different even though American and European philosophies took place around the same time period. European pragmatism and analytical philosophy as stated above is known as continental philosophy. “Continental philosophy may be found various identifiable schools of philosophical thought: existentialism, phenomenology, hermeneutics, deconstruction, and critical theory. Two influential schools were existentialism and phenomenology”(p 152). Continental philosophy does not accept scientific methods, instead European philosophers view thought in the form if such things as space, time, history, culture, and language. Continental philosophers also find value on theory as well as practice. They view their philosophy based on political, individual, and moral changes. So, continental philosophy generally likes to place the importance of past views on philosophical argument, sticking to the theory that philosophical thought must be seen within its historical and cultural context, and uses both theory and practice in its views.
Two main continental philosophers were Martin Heidegger and Jean-Paul Sartre. While both were equally important they each had different roles; Heidegger was more phenomenologist and Sartre was more existentialist. Phenomenology, being the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view. Existentialism being the study of philosophy concerned with finding self and the meaning of life through free will, choice, and personal responsibility. The philosopher Jürgen Habermas, contributed in his way with the Hermeneutics. This philosophy is the study of the theory and practice of interpretation; “mainly dealing with interpretations of the written texts, texts of the Bible, and the language of human interactions” (p 177).
Moore, B. N., & Bruder, K. (2011) Philosophy: The Power of Ideas. (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.