8 Steps for Preparing to Speak
1) Decide on a topic
2) Demonstrate ethical behavior throughout the
3) Determine the general purpose, specific
purpose, and thesis statement
4) Define your audience
5) Document your ideas through firm support and
6) Draft the beginning, middle, and end
7) Develop the language of your speech with care
8) Deliver your speech while making your tension
work for you
Topic Selection (step 1)
Best place to begin in picking a speech topic is yourself. Your own interests
Ethical Behavior (step 2)
ethics needs to be held in:
how you approach your topic, where you get the information, how you edit or interpret information, ...view middle of the document...
Hold more weight than opinions.
Statistics inform, startle, and convince. Offers strong support for your speech.
help illustrate a point or claim. Illustrations help to clarify points and they may leave a lasting impression on your audience.
involves quoting someone's experience or opinion.
-Can be a powerful form of support because everyone pays attention to an expert. (on a subject)
making comparisons to clarify or prove a point.
Figurative analogies- compare different kinds of things
Literal analogies- compare similar categories
logical way to organize your speech is to divide it into 3 parts: (step 6)
introduction, body, conclusion
should capture the attention and interest of your audience, establish your credibility as a speaker, and preview your speech.
contains your key ideas and relevant supporting material.
-most time consuming aspect of speech
-Frequently, speakers work on the body before introduction
1) reinforce the message
2) summarize the main points
3) provide closure in some way that relates your message to your listeners' lives.
Language (step 7)
the words you use to convey your message reflect your personality, your attitude toward your subject, occasion, and audience, and your concern for communicating effectively.
-Words are your primary vehicle for creating meaning.
Four guidelines to choose your words with care.
1) Use plain English
2) Remember the writing and speaking are diff activities
3) Relate your language to your audience's level of knowledge
4) Use language for specific effect
Deliver your speech while making your tension work for you (step 8)
1) Verbal and nonverbal delivery
2) Stages of speech tension
volume, articulation and pronunciation, pacing (rate of speech), and avoiding "fillers."
eye contact, gestures, and movement
"you know" or "you know what I mean?"
"ah" , "um" or "er"
-should be reduced and if possible eliminated.
Most people experience three stages of physiological arousal immediately before and during the first few minutes of a speech:
1) anticipatory stage
2) confrontational stage
3) post-confrontational stage
takes place in the minutes before the speech- heart rates zoom from a normal testing rate of about 70 beats per minute to between 95 and 140.
typically at beginning of speech, when heart rates jump to between 110 and 190 beats per minute. This stage usually lats no more than thirty seconds and gives way to post-confrontational stage.
when pulse returns to anticipation levels or lower. --Confrontation experienced in stage two is so strong that speakers may not perceive the decrease.
goal is to communicate information and ideas in a way that your audience will understand and remember