1.1 Analyse the philosophy of one major therapeutic model in relation to
* Its origin
* Historical development to the present day
* The people influential in its development
My chosen model is Person Centred Therapy, it developed from the original work of Carl Rogers, an American psychotherapist researcher and academic, and his colleagues from about 1940 onwards. (Sanders, 2004). Carl Rogers proposed that theory could be simpler, warmer and more optimistic than that carried out by behavioral or psychodynamic psychologists.
Rogers attempted to change the world of psychotherapy when he boldly claimed that psychoanalytic, experimental, and behavioral therapists were preventing ...view middle of the document...
Psychiatric casualties of war far outstripped the available supply of practitioners. Like many psychologists of his day, Rogers contributed to the war effort. Under the supervision of Rensis Likert, he interviewed gunners upon their return from battle missions. The data he gathered were used to generate recommendations that would help gunners adjust to civilian life. Working as director of counselling services for the United Service Organization (USO) he developed a program to train others to provide nondirective counselling to returning veterans. The need for effective methods and techniques that could be quickly acquired was a priority, and client-centered therapy fit the bill. Not only had the world changed, but so too did American psychology. As a result of the war, those who identified themselves as applied psychologists joined with academic psychologists in 1945 to create a reorganized American Psychological Association (APA). Carl Rogers became president of the APA in 1946.
In 1945 Roger set up the influential counselling centre. He gathered around him a group of staff all of whom have been extremely influential either in association with Rogers or in their own right. This group included Virginia Axline, Godfrey Barrett-Lennard, Eugene Gendlin, Thomas Gordon, Nathaniel Raskin, Julius Seeman, John Shlien and Fred Zimring.
During the 1950’s Rogers developed the first ever research programme to investigate the effectiveness of psychotherapy. In 1957 Rogers was invited to join the ‘Wisconsin Project’. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hypothesis that the conditions proposed by Rogers would determine the outcome of therapy with people diagnosed with schizophrenia and confined to a mental health hospital. (Sanders, 2004)
Rogers was influenced by his work with Eugene Gendlin, Gendlin was developing his theory of experiencing and Rogers was giving much thought to the process with the client during therapy. Rogers then went onto develop the seven stages of change within the client.
Carl Rogers has influenced many therapist s over the years; his ideas have been at the core of many current training programs and educational studies.
Carl Rogers influenced Gerald Egan; some of Rogers ideas have been incorporated into Egan’s systematic approach which is described in The Skilled helper. (1994)
The Association for Humanistic Psychology in Britain has introduced many practitioners to Rogers's ideas and its journal Self and Society has featured many articles on his work. Indeed, he himself was a contributor to the journal. The work of the Facilitator Development Institute (FDI) founded in 1974 on the initiative of Rogers's close associate, Dr. Charles Devonshire, has through its annual workshops introduced person-centred ideas to a wide variety of psychologists, social workers, psychiatrists and others.
In 1985 the Institute began its first extensive training programme for person-centred counsellors, work now continued by...