Since India conducted its series of five nuclear bomb test explosions in May of 1998, there have been reports of a “cyber war” taking place between India and Pakistan. However, it seems that the attacks have no state ties. The attackers are often times patriots who are attacking the other nation in the spirit of the rivalry they’ve maintained since the independence of Pakistan and India from British India. Intentional or not, this unconventional war is affecting civilians and businesses, public and private.
Without first learning of and understanding the history between India and Pakistan, the exchanging of blows on today’s cyber battlefield may seem senseless. It is important to know about ...view middle of the document...
Another notable occurrence of violence during the partition of India were the numerous rapes committed against women on both sides, the Hindu males against Muslim women and the Muslim males against Hindu and Sikh Women (2). An estimated 75,000 (3) and 100,000 women were kidnapped and raped. (4) After these events, both states agreed to search for and return abducted women. While thousands made it back to their respective lands, many refused to go back home to their families, feeling shame and fearing rejection. (5)
Since the partition, the two nations fought each other in four wars and several armed skirmishes, with most of the conflict revolving around the dispute over Kashmir. The first major war was the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, occurring from October 1947 until January 1949. On October 22, at a time of uncertainty when Kashmir was being given a choice of which nation to accede to, a Pakistani tribal militia was dispatched in an effort to claim it. The Pakistani militia had little problem invading the border region. While the path to Srinagar, the state capital with a valuable, undefended airfield, was clear, the militia instead decided to remain in the captured cities in order to commit crimes such as looting and raping. (6) Charles Chevenix Trench stated in ‘The Frontier Scouts’ (1985):
Tribal lashkars hastened in lorries - undoubtedly with official logistic support - into Kashmir. . . It seemed that nothing could stop these hordes of tribesmen taking Srinagar with its vital airfield. Indeed nothing did, but their own greed. The Mahsuds in particular stopped to loot, rape and murder; Indian troops were flown in and the lashkars pushed out of the Vale of Kashmir into the mountains. The Mahsuds returned home in a savage mood, having muffed an easy chance, lost the loot of Srinagar and made fools of themselves.
The Maharaja of Kashmir originally wanted to remain independent and neutral, similar to Switzerland, but after Pakistan’s invasion he signed the Instrument of Accession to India. Following the signing of the Instrument of Accession, India airlifted troops into Srinagar and from there proceeded to push the Pakistani invaders out of Kashmir, ultimately resulting in a UN cease-fire arranged for December 31, 1948. Pakistan was able to acquire 40 percent of Kashmir while India kept 60 percent.
The following war, the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, is best known as the Second Kashmir War. Its roots take place with Operation Gibraltar, an operation executed by Pakistan to infiltrate Jammu and Kashmir in order to incite a rebellion against Indian rule. (7) Pakistani command figured this was an ideal time to put this operation in motion since India was recovering from their loss in a conflict with China in the Sino-Indian war of 1962, the 1963 disappearance of a holy relic from a shrine located in Srinagar inspired Islamic sentiment, and Pakistan had favorable outcome in a skirmish with India via the Rann of Kutch in 1965. (8)
With this in...