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Data Networking Assignment

1568 words - 7 pages

Praveen Chekka

TSMG 5330 – Fall 2013

NU ID: 001942606

1. The difference in browsing time or page load time depends of various factors. Different factors are Cookies, Caching, and HTTP persistent connection with pipelining, SPDY protocol and DHCP protocol. Cookies - HTTP server is stateless. Cookies help the server to identify them because it allows users as a function of identity to access the content. HTTP uses cookies to identify users and it is simply an identification card of internet user. Client request time is to be decreased by reducing number of bytes in request header and passing cookies along with HTTP request to fit the request into a ...view middle of the document...

SPDY adds a SSL session layer that allows concurrent HTTP requests over a single TCP session and reduces the bandwidth that is currently used by HTTP by compressing and eliminating headers. SPDY alters the way HTTP works by overriding the parts of the protocol. SPDY has few features that allow it to achieve lesser web latency. The features are Multiplexed streams, Request prioritization, and HTTP Header compression Multiplexed Streams – Concurrent streams over single TCP connection. Efficiency of TCP is higher. Request Prioritization – Client can assign a priority to each request which avoids congestion. HTTP Header Compression – Causes fewer packets to transmit. DNS Caching – When client requests for a web page DNS query is sent to local lookup server to get the IP address of requested webpage. This reduces the time taken for web page display.

Page 1 of 10

Praveen Chekka

TSMG 5330 – Fall 2013

NU ID: 001942606

2. TCP on Host side waits for three duplicate ACK’s before it does fast retransmit. It doesn’t perform fast retransmit after first ACK. This explained as below:

TCP can’t consider the very first ACK received as indication for the retransmission of the segment because TCP doesn’t know whether the ACK received is because of lost segment or re ordering of segments. If it considers the first ACK received as indication there might be a chance that the packet sent from sender to receiver might take more time to reach the receiver than the time taken for ACK to come from receiver to sender. The other case is if the first ACK is received only because of re ordering then only one or two duplicate ACKs will be received. The reason is so because that designers have chosen and designed the TCP the way, it should retransmit only if sender receives three or more duplicate ACKs in a row. Thus TCP performs a retransmission for the so called missing segment as three duplicate ACks are received before the timeout period. 3. Mirav has started designing best effort delivery service with variable delays and losses using Stop-nwait protocol with only ACK’s. As he doesn’t want to use sequence number the design can be explained as below: Mirav’s design will be incorrect without the use of sequence numbers. This can be justified cnsidering two scenarios, scenario (a) and scenario (b) Scenario (a) – If the acknowledgement of correctly received packet is delayed too much such that the timeout period has reached before the acknowledgement is received to send from receiver’s side. Then the sender retransmits the packet ‘r’ as the acknowledgement is too delayed and it didn’t reach the sender. This causes the receiver getting duplicate packets which receiver would n’t be able to identify as there are no sequence numbers. Scenario (b) – If the acknowledgement of correctly received packet is lost during the transmission then the sender waits for the timeout period to resend the same packet. As the retransmission of same packet...

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