This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Decreasing Low Grade Systemic Inflammation Through Exercise

2952 words - 12 pages

Persistent low-grade inflammation has been identified as a significant contributor to the development of several chronic diseases, (Niklas et al, 2005) including heart disease and type II diabetes (Woods et al, 2009). Inflammation is indicated by an increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-Reactive protein (CRP) in the bloodstream (Niklas et al, 2005). This elevation may be due to a number of factors, including increased visceral adipose tissue secreting cytokines (Niklas et al, 2005), decreased circulatory levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (4) This essays aims to show the role that exercise can play ...view middle of the document...

It is expected that the number of people diagnosed with this disease will reach an estimated number of 385 million worldwide. That is roughly a 280% increase since 1995 (Badran et al., 2011). As with most common diseases throughout society, new ways of being able to diagnose or assess risk factors of contracting a certain disease are always evolving.
In terms of diabetes mellitus, inflammatory biomarkers have been targeted as an efficient and easy way to determine a person’s level of risk of being diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, as well as other cardiovascular diseases (Canino et al., 2011) Pro-inflammatory cytokines have been found at elevated levels in diabetic patients, particularly obese individuals, giving rise to the missing link between obesity and insulin resistance.(El-Kadar et al., 2012).
Increased visceral fat, particularly in the abdomen, has also been targeted as a cause for elevated levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, produced by increased numbers of macrophages, which cause this low-grade systemic inflammation. (Donath & Sheelson, 2011). Bishop et al. demonstrates the positive correlation between the expansion of adipose tissue cells and the elevated levels of secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from adipocytes and macrophages. Studies have shown that exercise can be highly beneficial in eliminating or minimising the effects of low-grade systemic inflammation (Bishop et al., 2011). It does this by lowering levels and rates of secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as stimulating the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as adiponectin, as well as myokines, such as IL-6 (not to be confused with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 secreted from macrophages and monocytes.) (Bishop et al., 2011).
Exercise can cause several physiological mechanisms to occur within the body, mostly for the benefit of health. Some in particular have been reported to aid in the decrease of pro-inflammatory adipokines, or stimulate the release of more anti-inflammatory cytokines.
Obesity has a strong correlation with diabetes mellitus. This is caused by the body storing an excess amount of body fat, in particular to the essay, visceral fat. This is usually caused by a positive energy balance, and more relevantly a sedentary lifestyle. Increased amounts of visceral fat can be detrimental to the anti-inflammatory phenotype of adipose tissue, which is normally characterised by small adipocytes and the presence of anti-inflammatory immune cells, or adipokines, such as M2-macrophages and CD4-regulatory T-cells (Bishop et al., 2011). These cells release the anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin. The presence of visceral fat causes these adipocytes to expand, and then infiltrated by pro-inflammatory adipokines, such as M1-macrophages. This causes the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as CRP and TNF (Bishop et al., 2011). These cause a state of low-grade systemic inflammation, which can cause vascular damage and...

Other Essays Like Decreasing Low Grade Systemic Inflammation Through Exercise

Med Surge 2 Study Essay

3474 words - 14 pages , inhibits platelet aggregation and increase vasodilation, good for patients who do not respond to exercise therapy and are not surgery canadites) and pentoxifylline (increases red blood cell flexibility and reduces blood viscosity) -exercise is important -keep BMI below 25 -nutrition (diet high in fruits, veggies, whole grains and low in cholesterol, sat. fat and salt -rest pain for 2 weeks= revascularization -platelets are good to reduce

Nursing Care Plan Essay

1185 words - 5 pages ) Promote optimal mobility by exercise |c) Regular movement and exercise is necessary to nourish the | | |pain scale. 10 represent the most severe pain. |spine on 6/2012. |The client will be able to |program. |various structures in the low back and encourage the strength

Obesity an American Epidemic

1905 words - 8 pages prevent inhibition of glucagon eat a diet low in sugar and exercise. Eating good fats, protein, and avoiding bad carbs and sugars will allow glucagon production to regulate (Aziz, 2010). Leptin controls the storage of fat around the organs and under the skin and controls appetite. High amounts of leptin will cause one to be hungry. High consumption of sugar and high insulin levels cause excessive levels of leptin. High blood pressure, heart

Genitourinary System

5062 words - 21 pages the daily loss of albumin through the kidneys. Thus, hypoalbuminemia results CAUSES * chronic glomerulonephritis * diabetes mellitus with intercapillary glomerulosclerosis * amyloidosis of the kidney * systemic lupus erythematosus * multiple myeloma * renal vein thrombosis SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS * edema {soft and pitting most commonly occurs around the eyes (periorbital), in dependent areas (sacrum, ankles, and

Concept Analysis

1369 words - 6 pages Public Health, 103(3), 494-500. Frisbee, S.J., Chambers, C.B., Frisbee, J.C., Goodwill, A.G., & Crout, R.J. (2010). Association between dental hygiene, cardiovascular disease risk factors and systemic inflammation in rural adults. The Journal of Dental Hygiene, 84(4), 177-184. Long, K.A., & Weinert, C. (1989). Rural nursing: Developing the theory base. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice, 3(2), 113-127. U.S. Department of Health

Crohns Disease

1262 words - 6 pages the distal ileum”.7 “High-resolution imaging with the current MRI technology has increased the accuracy of assessing the grade and severity of patient with Crohn’s disease”.7 Some of the risks include kidney damage and a possible allergic reaction to dye”.5 MRI is a very common procedure in the treatment of Crohn’s disease because of its low dose of ionizing radiation. This is important because of the extensive amount of imaging needed for

Class Size And Its Effect On The Academic Performance Of The Pupils In Sies And Oies

4163 words - 17 pages some assistance from peers, can transfer these understandings through authentic performance tasks. Meanwhile, average grade of the pupils from OIES falls in the range of developing (D) which is 75% to 79%. It means that pupils possess the minimum knowledge and skills and core understandings but needs the help throughout the performance of authentic tasks. Sub Problem 4. Is class size significantly related to the following: teacher’s

Discovering Myself

1233 words - 5 pages worst of all, bleeding. There are eczemas that are hereditary, whilst some are caused by a weak immune system. This also becomes apparent if a person is not used to a certain kind of skin product or other environmental factors. The treatments for this type of skin inflammation involve hydration and steroids. Dermatitis is another type of skin disease that is often associated with the body's allergic reactions to harmful sources. However, not

Obesity in Australia

4424 words - 18 pages million in 1989–90 to 5.4 million in 1995, 6.6 million in 2001 and 7.4 million in 2004–05. Approximately 25% of children are overweight or obese, up from an estimated 5% in the 1960s. (ABS, 2007) (Allman, AI. 2008) In Sydney, 57 per cent of people are overweight or obese, compared to 67 per cent in other areas. This figure is relatively low in comparison to other major cities such as Perth (72 %), South Australia (61.5%) and Victoria (68%). (Markey

Rhinovirus - The Common Cold

1133 words - 5 pages also acid labile which means that it is unable to withstand the harsh conditions in the gasterol intestinal tract. The key feature to Rhinovirus is its need for a low temperature environment, about 33 degrees Celsius. The body temperature of 37 degrees Celsius is to extereme for the pathogen. Therefore it is limited to upper respiratory infection and can not become systemic. Damage: While in the body, Rhinovirus does little or no tissue damage

Msd Assignment

4991 words - 20 pages inflammation. These cells must be able to get to the site of injury from their usual location in the blood, therefore mechanisms exist to recruit and direct leukocytes to the appropriate place. The process of leukocyte movement from the blood to the tissues through the blood vessels is known as extravasation (Woolf 2000; Porth 2007). Chemokine stimulates the leukocytes to move between endothelial cells and pass the through membrane into the tissues

Related Papers

Toxicity Paper

1054 words - 5 pages throat, breathing difficulties, and severe airway obstructions. Burning of the nose and throat, breathing difficulties, and severe airway obstructions occurred in miners who breathed sulfur dioxide released as a result of an explosion in a copper mine. Asthmatics have also been shown to be sensitive to the respiratory effects of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide is toxic to plants by being absorbed through the stomata into the

Study Guide Essay

4781 words - 20 pages and dad. Meningitis and what the Lumbar puncture test results would be **CSF will have low sugar with a lot of WBC action** Meningitis is acute inflammation of the meninges and CNS -Caused primarily by E coli, and Group B. Strep-newborn. H. flu not so much anymore because of immunizations. – In newborns. Strep neumo: most common in adolescents. Page 1165 Meningititis. Gonnorhea is common STD for Meningitis. -Viral meningitis is far less

Egans Cardio Vascular Review

5467 words - 22 pages inflammation 13.blood flow through large veins: affected by abdominal and intrathoracic pressure changes 14.blood functions: transport electrolytes, proteins, water, and hormones; contains platelets and clotting factors for hemostasis 15.blood functions: transports respiratory gases to and from tissue, provides antibodies, carriers nutrients and waste products to cells 16.cardiac output: SV x HR, is equal to circulating blood flow

Finance 2011 Essay

2567 words - 11 pages (hypochromic) Iron levels 8 (low) Ferritin 400 (high) Total Fe binding capacity Reduced... Which condition is most in line with this investigation: a. Pernicious anaemia b. Long standing inflammation c. Haemolysis d. Myelodysplasia e. Iron deficeent anaemia Question 12? Question 13 Which of the following antibiotic targets is MOST LIKELY to result in serious side effects following administration of such an antibiotic: a. Cell