The most persuasive theory of development is the Orthodox Marxism theory.
The Orthodox Marxism theory basically helps to describe, explain and predict development and economic growth of any country in the world as outlined in the works of Marxists found in the “Capitalist and Communist Manifesto” whereby they argue that development occurs and attains its peak of development and economic growth in society where the social and economic level was at the communist stage characterized by every person in society is rewarded according to their needs.
Karl Marx states that the society will always move forward because of the conflicts that emerge in one stage of development in a society. For ...view middle of the document...
The means of production is basically land and the relations of production are on those who own the land for example the feudal lords and those who lease the land from the feudal lords i.e. the slaves. This is achieved whereby the slaves till the lands and give the land produce back to the feudal lords. The feudal lords gradually adapts gradually adopted the advancement and adoption of manufacturing that amounts to a new means of production apart from land which was previously their major means of production. This leads to the transformation from feudalism to the next means means of production.
The third stage is the capitalist means of production. This stage is characterized by the emergence of technology, manufacturing, commerce and land as the means of production. The relationship of production includes the category that owns the means of production who are referred to as the bourgeoisie and the labourers who provide labour in the means of production referred to as the proletariats this leads to the differentiation of the society into two social classes. The goal of the bourgeoisie is to accumulate capital through the appropriation of surplus value of labour leading to the exploitation of labour resulting into a class conflict between the two social classes. Their relationship will be characterized by antagonicism leading to class struggle. The proletariat are struggling for a high wage in which the production should be equal to labour provided whereas the borgoiuse want to maintain the status quo, hence accumulation of capital. Its through the class struggle between the two social classes that the bourgeoisie feels threatened creating the state to protect their interest to safeguard the status quo.The state will enact laws to favor the bourgeoisie,establish institution to support and protect them, introduce institutions of cohesion and systems of education to support the bourgeoisie system in society. In the long run the bourgeoisie evenly loses the battle to the proletariat eventually succeeds in staging a revolution, whereby evenly the means of production becomes owned by the proletariat at once leading to communist mode of production.
The last stage is the communist mode of production whereby everyone is accorded based on his needs and there is no means of production. There is no explanation because the means of production is owned by society hence the communist stage is characterized by a classless society. This stage as a means of production is meant to correct distribution.
Orthodox Marxists argue that development is all about human society moving from one stage to another and each of these stages is being defferenciatied by mode of production adopted in that stage. The capitalist mode of production was the dominant mode of production in Europe during the time of Karl Marx. In the developing countries capitalism did not result from evolution like in Europe but it arrived to the third world countries through imperialism....