Chapter 4 Descriptive Epidemiology
Questions 1: The Variables in the table represent what type of data?
Answer: The data represented in the table on page 115 is regarded as nominal data. Nominal data is defined as unordered categories or classes (e.g. gender, race, ethnicity, marital status and occupation).
Question 2: Describe the extent of the public health problem of female breast cancer according to place?
Answer: White females in San Francisco tend to have the highest breast cancer incident rate and the lowest cancer rate for them is within Atlanta. Out of all ethnicities surveyed White females has the highest cancer rate in Detroit even thought it was middle of the road compared ...view middle of the document...
There are no adjustments made when a crude rate is given. The age distribution among the geographic populations could be explained by the metropolitan areas because the crude rate counted all females instead of the ones that could be most affected by the primary cancer incidence rates. Because of this, Primary Cancer is dominated by the older age groups, which have higher rates of cancer disease; this masks the fact that their risk at each age is higher. This is the best answer for explaining the change in ratio for the adjusted rates.
Question 5: Do these data provide any clues to whether race is a risk factor for female breast cancer?
Answer: The data shows that white women tend to have a higher significance for primary breast cancer because they have a higher number of cases in every metropolitan area and age group addressed within the data. According to the data Black women had the least among of cases in comparison of white women in every single age category as well as metropolitan areas. These are some of the clues that show race is a risk factor for female breast cancer.
Question 6: What other descriptive data would be useful for providing clues as to the causes of female breast cancer?
Answer: Other descriptive data that would be helpful in finding the clues to the causes of female breast cancer would be there lifestyle, health, age and whether they participated in high risk cancer associated activities. Some other descriptive information that would be helpful is there occupation or smoke and if their jobs are associated with high cancer activities.
Question 7: Calculate relative frequencies across age groups for whites, blacks and other racial groups? How does age specific percentages of breast cancer compare among racial groups?
Answers: Age specific percentages are higher among white women than black women. The age specific rates among other races were still either lower or the same when compared to the Black population but the white pop has the largest percentages.
| White Population | |
Years | Cases | Relative Freq |
< 50 years | 3,616 | 22 |
50-54 | 1,913 | 12 |
55-59 | 2,094 | 13 |
60-64 | 2,043 | 12 |
65-69 | 1,788 | 11 |
70+ | 4,940 | 30 |
Total Pop | 16,394 | 100 |
Black Population |
Cases2 | Relative Freq |
1,415 | 29 |
690 | 14 |
692 | 14 |
577 | 12 |
443 | 9 |
1,026 | 21 |
4,843 | 100 |
Question 8: Calculate the age specific rates for each racial group. Graph these age-specific rates for each age group? (Below is the age specific rates and the Graph for these age specific rates)
| White Population | | Black Population | | | |
Years | Cases | Population | Age-specific | Cases2 |...