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Development Economics Essay

2940 words - 12 pages

Introduction
The essay will focus on the subject of rich and poor countries; it will distinguish between four classifications based on income levels. These include low-income country, lower-middle income country, upper-middle income country and high income country. It will provide an analysis and explanation for observed differences and trends. Each category will provide a practical example by comparing the levels of development indicators of the four countries as well as the trends over time. The development indicators include:
Health – This is a state of the whole physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease. A person can be in good health and poor ...view middle of the document...

The war led to an economic hardship and severe destruction of social infrastructure, including damage to the health care system. The population’s health status was also weakened because of the HIV epidemic, which heavily affects young women (unfpa, 2013). There are three basic health status indicators, infant mortality, under-five child mortality, and maternal mortality, are among the highest in the world (Table 2).

The spread of HIV decreased the health status in Mozambique. The prevalence among male STD clinic pertains tested in the capital city increased from 3 to 20 per cent from 1987 to 1996. And outside Maputo it increased by 26 per cent. The overall estimate of HIV prevalence was 13.2 per cent in 1999 and it later increased to 16.1 per cent in 2000.
There where improvements made in heath since 1992 after the civil war. After the war they were positive outcomes which show a positive trend line

The growth monitoring program also shows a slight improvement in nutritional status among children: between 1996 and 1999, the proportion of children with poor growth has decreased from 10.5 per cent to 8.9 per cent.
Education - The education component is concerned with creating a quality learning environment that promotes child-centred teaching approaches in well-managed classrooms. It includes a range of interventions such as training educators in teaching and school management, promoting the participation of parents and community members in the School Committees, providing quality learning and teaching materials, including desks, and rehabilitating classrooms in need (unicef, 2013). From the mid-1990s the after math of the civil war, there was a serious blow on education infrastructure which resulted on free primary education, to encourage more primary enrolment.
The education system in Mozambique is divided to three main categories: primary, secondary school and high school, this are divided into two namely private and public schools. The private schools are for the well-off Portuguese families and public schools are for the general population.

The graph above shows the net enrolment in primary education by sex, from 1990 they were 43 per cent of boys enrolled in primary education. 1999 the number of boys and girls enrolled in primary education increased. By 2002 there was a father improvement of primary enrolment. 2010 there was a drastic improvement in both boys and girls enrolled in primary.

The graph shows no enrolment on the early 90s as a result of the civil war. Students started enrolling in the late 90s; about 3 per cent of students were enrolled in secondary education in 1999. By 2002 the number of students enrolled in secondary education improved to 4 per cent. Year 2010 16 per cent of male student were enrolled in secondary education
Poverty and Inequality – Mozambique was considered one of the world’s poorest countries. The mean consumption per capita was below the absolute poverty line. In the period 1990 to 2002...

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