The media of mass communication have long played a fundamental role in people’s
lives. The media informs, persuades, entertains, and even sells. For the most part;
mass media is only owned by a few private companies, as we learned in the “media
ownership” discussion. According to the “Telecommunications Act of 1996,”, this act
was to spawn some competition the broadcast companies. It also eased the restrictions
on the number of television stations one individual company can own. The media,
controlled by power corporations and government organizations, has positioned itself to
influence people in all manner of ways, but no one group controls the system as a
Media literacy is defined as developing a critical understanding of how mass
media operates and being able to read the messages behind the media images.
“Ones means to negotiate the power that the media has over you is to develop
cultural literacy skills”(Fechio, 1998)
According to Gerbner (2000), media literacy involves three distinct skills:
First, media consumers must be able to identify the techniques used to
create the images that are perceived to be real. The understanding of how reality
television show producers use visual images, music, lighting, camera angles, and
the editing process to influence media images.
Second, media consumers must come to understand that the media
businesses are geared toward earning profits.
Third, media consumers must learn to recognize how specific mass media
images project particular ideologies (e.g., cultural superiority) and values (e.g.,
There are some driving forces that focus public attention on the issue of digital
convergence. These include the digitalization of media and information technology,
worldwide deregulation trends, changes in technology, merger, acquisition activities,
and the search for new markets. Understanding the effects of the media on individuals.
It required that we examine the message that is being sent to the owners of the media
and the audience. These effects can be cognitive. Behavioral, psychological and
attitudinal. There are some theoretical approaches that need to be examined in the
media, to include functional analysis, cultivational analysis, agenda, the uses and
gratifications, and social bearing.
The review of existing research shows some evidence that people depend on
television news for public affairs information and are more likely to have negative
attitudes toward government. "There is a number of driving forces that focus public
attention on the issue, including the digitalization of media and information technology,
worldwide deregulation trends, changes in technology (most notably the Internet),
merger and acquisition activities, and the search for new market".(Gershon 2012)
The media, controlled by power corporations and government organizations, has
positioned itself to influence people in all manner of ways, but no one group controls the
system as a whole.
Convergence can mean the merger of people, resources, media technologies,
content, and industries. Media convergence is the merging (or joining) of previously
distinct media to create entirely new forms of communication expression.
Henry Jenkins, a professor at USC, described convergence as the relationship
between media convergence and user empowerment. He (Jenkins) states that
“Convergence requires media companies to rethink old assumptions about what it
means to consume media,...