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Discovery Of The Electron Essay

685 words - 3 pages

i did this report for my chem 1 class, its nothing special, but if you need some info on electrons, or the discovery of, then this is great. noneThe Discovery Of The ElectronThe electron was discovered in 1895 by J.J. Thomson in theform of cathode rays, and was the first elementary particle to beidentified. The electron is the lightest known particle whichpossesses an electric charge. Its rest mass is Meequal> 9.1 x 10 -28 g, about 1/1836 of the mass of the proton orneutron.The charge of the electron is -e = -4.8 x 10^-10 esutrostatic unit). The sign of the electron's charge is negative byconvention, and that of the equally charged proton is positive.This is somewhat a unfortunate convention, because the flow ofelectrons in a conductor is opposite to the ...view middle of the document...

Electrons are emitted in radioactivity and inmany other decay processes. The electron itself is completelystable. Electrons contribute the bulk to ordinary matter; thevolume of an atom is nearly all occupied by the cloud of electrons surrounding the nucleus, which occupies only about 10^-13of the atom's volume. The chemical properties of ordinary matter aredetermined by the electron cloud.The electron obeys the Fermi-Dirac statistics, and for thisreason is often called a fermion. One of the primary attributesof matter, impenetrability, results from the fact that the electron, being a fermion, obeys the Pauli exclusion principle.The electron is the lightest of a family of elementaryparticles, the leptons. The other known charged leptons are themuon and the tau. These three particles differ only in mass;they have the same spin, charge, strong interactions, and weakinteractions. In a weak interaction a charged lepton is eitherunchanged or changed into and uncharged lepton, that is a neutrino. In the latter case, each charged lepton is seen to changeonly into the corresponding neutrino.The electron has magnetic properties by virtue of (1) itsorbital motion about the nucleus of its parent atom and (2) itsrotation about its own axis. The magnetic properties are bestdescribed through the magnetic dipole movement associated with 1and 2. The classical analog of the orbital magnetic dipole momentof a small current-carrying circuit. The electron spin magneticdipole moment may be thought of as arising from the circulationof charge, that is, a current, about the electron axis; but aclassical analog to this moment has much less meaning than thatto the orbital magnetic dipole moment. The magnetic moments ofthe electrons in the atoms that make up a solid give rise to thebulk magnetism of the solid.

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