OBJECTIVES * To introduce the different perspectives on psychological disorders, and to discuss the controversy surrounding the use of diagnostic labels. * To describe the most prevalent disorders, and to examine their possible causes. * To describe the prevalence of the different psychological disorders. * To investigate how Dissociative identity occur among woman * How the family members handle the situation with DID suffer * To recommend the ways to prevent DID among woman. Perspectives on Psychological Disorders 1. Identify the criteria for judging whether behavior is psychologically disordered.
There is a fine and somewhat arbitrary line between normality and ...view middle of the document...
Such diagnostic classification ideally aims to describe a disorder, predict its future course, imply appropriate treatment, and stimulate research into its causes. Anxiety Disorders 4. Describe the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, phobias, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Generalized anxiety disorder is an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder in which the anxiety may at times suddenly escalate into a terrifying panic attack, a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations. A phobia is an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation. An obsessive-compulsive disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions). 5. Explain the development of anxiety disorders from both a learning and a biological perspective.
The learning perspective views anxiety disorders as a product of fear conditioning, stimulus generalization, reinforcement, and observational learning. The biological perspective emphasizes evolutionary, genetic, and physiological influences.Mood Disorders 6. Describe major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.
In major depressive disorder, a person-without apparent reason-descends for weeks or months into deep unhappiness, lethargy, and feelings of worthlessness before rebounding to normality. Poor appetite, insomnia, and loss of interest in family, friends, and activities are often other important symptoms. Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and overexcited manic episodes (hyperactive, wildly optimistic states). 7. Explain the development of mood disorders, paying special attention to the biological and social-cognitive perspectives.
The biological perspective emphasizes the importance of genetic and biochemical influences. Mood disorders run in families and a search for genes that put people at risk is now under way. Certain neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine and serotonin, seem to be scarce in depression. Finally, the brains of depressed people have been found to be less active. The social- cognitive perspective sees depression as a vicious cycle in which (1) stressful...