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Dna And Rna Essay

1888 words - 8 pages

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DNA AND RNA |
DONE BY : FATIMA SHAFIQUE |
ID no: 201420060 |
COURSE TITLE: General Science |
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Introduction
DNA molecule is a hereditary material which is transmitted from generation to generation. It is the largest molecule in the living cell comprising of several millions of nucleotide chain. It is in the sequence of nucleotides in the polymers where genetic information carried by chromosomes is located. Each nucleotide is composed of three parts: nitrogenous base like purine and pyrimidine, a sugar (deoxyribose) and a phosphate group. The nitrogenous base determines the identity of the nucleotide. RNA is a nucleic acid having almost similar structure as that of ...view middle of the document...

4Å apart and 34Å constitutes a full complete turn bearing 10base pairs
DNA structure:

Nucleotides:
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is structurally and functionally complex macromolecule molecule found in various organisms. It is much more abundant in eukaryotes as compared to the prokaryotes. Therefore, it has to have certain property (i.e. super coiling) by which it can suitably be accommodated in the cell. It is made of four different types of building blocks so called nucleotides.
Nucleotides are composed of nucleosides (bases + 2'deoxyribose) and phosphate groups.

The four types of bases composing DNA are:

Purines (double ring structure)
* Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimidines (single ring structure)
* Thymine and Cytosine

The sugar is a 2'-deoxyribose and is phosphorylated at its 5'hydroxyl group. Free nucleotides contain either one, two, or three phosphates indicating mono, di, or triphosphate form of nucleotide.

Fig: DNA showing H-bonding between different bases.
Figure [ 1 ] Specific base pairing in DNA molecule
Figure [ 1 ] Specific base pairing in DNA molecule
Guanine pairs with Cytosine by 3-hydrogen bonds (G=C) and Adenine pairs with Thymine by 2-hydrogen bonds (A=T). Thus the m.p. of the G=C base pair is higher as compared to the A=T base pair. The DNA strands are antiparallel, running two strands in the opposite directions
The bases in the two antiparallel strands are complementary to each other. That is wherever Adenine occurs in one chain, Thymine is found in the other chain. Similarly wherever Guanine occurs in one chain, Cytosine is found in the other chain. This complementarity of the two strands could efficiently replicate by: separating the two strands and synthesizing a complementary strand for each in which each per existing strand acts as a template to the synthesizing the new strands. Special properties of DNA brought about by the virtue of its structure. Since two strands of DNA run in opposite direction there is complementary base pairing. It is capable of transmitting the genetic information to the next generation. DNA structure being double stranded form the hydrophobic bases are protected from the outside aqueous environment and hydrophilic ones facing outside. The replication is also efficiently carried out. Two complementary strands unwind and each preexisting strand act as template for new developing strand. Having a large number of hydrogen bonds between the bases make them extremely stable. Moreover each base stacking, one above another in a planar manner gives large hydrophobic interactions which gives additional stability to the DNA.
Pyrimidine base in DNA is thymine instead of Uracil. The thymine large additional non-reactive methyl group which shields from other chemical or biological attacks. This gives extra stability to DNA unlike RNA molecule. Thus RNA is less stable than the DNA molecule. By the virtue of all those properties DNA is extremely suited to be the genetic material...

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