The individual is 67 inches +/- 1.177 inches (approximately 5’7”, 5’6” to 5’8”). The regression model was used to identify the stature of these remains. The Trotter and Gleser model for European males was used with the formula to estimate age based on the femur and tibia because it had the lowest rate of error (Trotter and Gleser, 1958).
The Fully Pineau method requires that all bones involved in height, including all the vertebra (Fully and Pineau, 1960). In case Cr-13-304, the remains were incomplete and thus the stature of this individual could not be identified through the Fully and Pineau method.
*Note: more confirmation of stature will be performed with FORDISC
Pathology ...view middle of the document...
This could be an early indicator of anything from spondylosis to tuberculosis (Ortner 2003).
Schmorl’s nodes are present on fourth and fifth Lumbar vertebrae.
The dentition displays linear enamel hypoplasia, indicative of several instances of malnutrition or undernutrition throughout the individual’s life. There are no cavities or skeletal indicators of abscesses, many teeth are worn down to exposed dentin.
Antemortem/ Perimortem Trauma
Antemortem/perimortem trauma are visible on the first right rib and left femur and tibia.The anterior part of the left femur exhibits a small straight line incision approximately 1.2 cm long on the most distal end. This is due to sharp force trauma. With the combination of blunt force trauma a crushing or beveling observation is also apparent. The proximal end of the left tibia appears normal. The distal end, however, shows evidence of ante-mortem trauma. There are three visible parallel slicing marks. The most medial, distal incision measures at about .8 cm long. Moving superiorly up the shaft of the tibia, the second incision measuring about .6 cm long and the third uppermost incision measuring approximately .4 cm long. These manifestations are characteristics of sharp force trauma most likely from a small object due to incision size (Symes 2012). The first left rib on the most distal end shows evidence of sharp force trauma with no crushing. This slicing is in a half moon design on the most distal end of the rib.
Cut marks were present on both femurs, the left os coxa, and many of the ribs. There was also scraping present on the right humerus and the left femur. This could be a result of poor excavation skills. Most elements show signs of root etching varying in visibility. Many of the elements are eroded due to the time spent in the burial prior to being recovered. This erosion varies in severity throughout all of the elements. The ribs are extremely fractured. One thoracic vertebra is fractured into 5 pieces. The left os coxa is fractured along the ischiopubic ramus and the left and right inner eye orbit is also fractured. All the elements are discolored (brown). Along the vertebral column the cervical vertebra are a lighter brown than the lumbar vertebra. The discoloration on the vertebral column looks like gradient. The left and right femur and the left tibia are peeling due to an unknown cause.
Remains CR-13-304 have been designated as an adult male of mixed European and Asian/Native American descent standing approximately 67 inches +/- 1.177 inches tall and 20 to 30 years old. He suffered from minor skeletal...