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Dsm Iv Evaluation Essay

1017 words - 5 pages

There are many mental health disorders and illnesses to which people suffer from. After reading several case studies and matching the correct diagnosis to the correct case study, now it is time to go over these case studies, diagnosis, causes and treatments. There are five case studies in total. The diagnoses to be covered are schizoid personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, somatoform disorder, dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia.
The first case study was on a middle ages woman name Josephine. Josephine presented with symptoms of schizoid personality disorder. She is avoidant of social situations, shows no emotions and prefers to be alone. From a cognitive ...view middle of the document...

Sociocultural theorists believe that we are in the “eras of narcissism” (Comer, 2011, p. 414)when people are becoming more self-centered and materialistic because of the breakdown of family values and social ideas. Narcissistic personality disorder is difficult to treat because this type of patient believes he/she is flawless. Treatments, however, are working through basic insecurities and defenses, redirection from self-centered thinking, learning to rationally handle criticism, and learning to feel empathy. Unfortunately, there has been little success in the treating narcissistic personality disorder (Comer, 2011).
Anissa was the subject of the third case study and she presented with somatoform disorder. This is a “pattern of physical complaints with largely psychosocial causes” (Comer, 2011, p. 164). Explanations of causes differ from one perspective to another. Behavioral theorists believe that somatoform disorder derives from classical conditioning or modeling. Cognitive theorists believe the patient with somatoform disorder is too sensitive to bodily cues. Some psychodynamic theorists believe somatoform disorder is a conversion from emotional problems to physical symptoms, perhaps unconscious issues from childhood. Others still, believe in primary and secondary gain where internal conflicts are kept hidden and the patient doesn’t have to participate in activities that are not pleasurable. From a behavioral view, rewards like attention come from the physical symptoms; but from a cognitive perspective, somatoform disorder opens up a door to communication and a way to deal with emotions in a physical manner. The multicultural perspective explains that it just depends what culture one is brought up in because somatic symptoms are acceptable in non-western culture whereas in western cultures, it is considered an inferior way to handle emotions. Treatments, again, vary, depending on the perspective. Psychotherapy and antidepressants or antianxiety medications are sometimes helpful. Hypnosis and reinforcement are also somewhat beneficial for those that suffer from conversion and pain disorders (Comer, 2011).
Karen is the subject of the fourth case study. Karen is diagnosed with dissociative disorder which is a loss of ability to remember without physical cause. Causes of dissociative disorder may be from a basic defense mechanism such as repression of a painful memory or...

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