Early Childhood Education and Social Inequalities
Early Childhood Development and Social Inequalities
All families should have the same opportunities to live a descent life. But due to the backgrounds of some families, and children, they may not have a chance for this. There are certain risk factors that have a bearing on social inequalities in health, and particularly those that are prone to preventative intervention. There are many that I could talk about, but I have picked out four of these factors to talk about. They are biological factors, family and social factors, parenting factors, and ...view middle of the document...
There are other biological variables that seem to be independent of psycho-social factors. In one study, it was shown that if the mother smoked
during her pregnancy, there appeared to be a high risk for conduct disorder and male children.This study suggested that are maybe a direct effect on the still developing fetus.
“The influences of genetics are seen as an impact on social inequalities. The MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study provided researchers with important information related to genetic factors in behavioral inhibition.” Behavioral inhibition is unstable between ages of 14 to 24 months, and that this change is due to genetics rather then environmental factors. It suggests that genes may turn off and on at different ages, and that genes are “context dependent.” In example of the Twin Study, comparisons between the identical and fraternal twins show that there was a continual genetic influence showing responses on cognitive, emotional, and behavior arousal in response to distress of another, at the ages of 24 and 36 months. Social influences that were shared by the twins with their interactions with parents and others were a major influence with
the mothers, but not the testers. So genetic influences showed up more readily. Genetic
influences were ever present are not environmentally controlled. Maybe the social background of a child with a low SES (socioeconomic status) could inhibit or caused the trigger effect (turn on or off) of genetic propensities.
Our next topic is the family and social factors. Two of the biggest are social class and poverty. These have been found very often to predict the developmental outcomes of childhood. There are suggestions that infants and young children who grow up in poverty are more likely to suffer health problems., cognitive delays and behavioral problems as compared to children who do not grow up in poverty. These poor children “more likely to experience medical problems such as lead poisoning, failure to thrive, otitis media, iron deficiency, anemia, and to score lower on developmental and cognitive scales.” There are many variables that effect relationships indirectly, these include nutrition, housing, medical care, lifestyles, neighborhood quality, accidents, and exposure to toxic substances. Also a social and emotional qualities in which the
child develops: parenting skills, maltreatment, maternal disharmony, and quality of care.
Young children who have a low SES are assigned the term “doubled jeopardy,” because they are not only exposed to risk factors more frequently, but they also experience more serious consequences from these risks. People from a low SES background are vulnerable to negative events in their lives such as single parenting, social isolation, and unemployment. The fate of the child raised in poverty is further jeopardized by more exposure to power-assertive discipline and physical punishment without the parenting support they need. Evidence of poor abusive...