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Eating, Substance Abuse, Sex/Gender, Sexual, And Personality Disorders

965 words - 4 pages

Today you see actors and actresses on television with these perfect figures and buff bodies. It makes one stop and think do they have an eating disorder or are they abusing substances. There are many different types of people in this world. There are individuals that have eating disorders, who abuse substances, personality disorders, cannot control their impulses, and foremost sex/gender disorders. These types of behaviors all have biological, emotional, cognitive and behavioral factors.Today there are many adolescent girls that are anorexic or bulimic. Not many people see this as a disorder. From the cognitive-behavioral perspective, anorexia and bulimia result from a combination of ...view middle of the document...

The sociocultural explanation of eating disorders focuses on the unrealistic images of female beauty presented by the media and their negative effects on women. Eating disorders usually arise from multiple causes. Most treatments, especially in cases where the eating-disordered behavior is severe, involve the combination of techniques from a variety of theoretical perspectives. Biological explanations of anorexia and bulimia focus on the role of genetic, hormonal, and neurotransmission factors. Studies of twins indicate that genetics play a role in the development of eating disorders, as they do with two other psychological disorders that often co-occur with anorexia and bulimia: depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is not clear if the hormonal and neurotransmission differences between people with and without eating disorders are a cause or result of the eating disorders. (Hansell & Damour, 2005)Biological explanations of substance use disorders include the hypothesis that drug use is a form of self-medication for biochemical deficiencies, and an emphasis on the role of genetic factors in substance use disorders. Sociocultural and family systems approaches emphasize social and family dynamics that can contribute to substance misuse. Social support and family treatment can also contribute to recovery from substance use disorders. Behavioral and cognitive perspectives highlight the role of tension reduction, classical conditioning, and negative beliefs and expectancies in substance use disorders. Classical conditioning interventions such as covert sensitization, operant conditioning techniques such as aversion therapies and contingency management, and cognitive restructuring methods are among the important behavioral and cognitive treatment components. Early psychodynamic explanations for substance misuse focused on the hypothesis of emotional fixation at an oral, pleasure-addicted developmental stage. Current psychodynamic theorists view substance misuse as a maladaptive defense mechanism for coping with painful emotions. (Hansell & Damour, 2005)Sexuality is a ubiquitous, intense, and emotionally conflicted aspect of human life. Sexual dysfunctions can be caused by a wide variety of psychological and biological factors. Psychodynamic explanations of paraphilias originally focused on fixations in sexual development, and currently focus on defense...

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