Sunderban is the largest mangrove wetland in the world. It covers an area of about 1mha, of which 60% is located in Bangladesh and the remaining western portion, comprising 40%, lies in India. Mangrove ecosystems are of great ecological significance in the tropical and sub-tropical coast. They protect our coast from heavy wind, tidal waves, coastal erosion and sea water intrusion, generate substantial quantities of fishery resources and provide many useful forestry products. The Sunderban ecosystem supports rich fisheries diversity. This ecosystem support 27 families and 53 species of pelagic fish, 49 familiesâ€™ 124 species of demersal fish, 5 families and 24 species of ...view middle of the document...
The high and low tides coming in make a big difference to the ecology. Sunderban is not only the home for Royal Bengal tigers, but it harbors one of the largest remaining global populations of highly endangered species. Research has indicated that mangroves can absorb 30-40% of the total force of a cyclone and reduce the fore of powerful waves before they hit inland. Hence, it acts as a natural shield protecting Bangladesh.
Sign & Symptoms of Sundarban
Since the Sundarban delta is formed by the super confluence of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers, the soils are fertile owing to continuous silt deposits. The soil of the region can be generally classified into five groups depending on the texture of the soil:
The area has three main hydrological zones: brackish, moderately saline and saline, which influence the types of vegetation which dominate each.
With salinity level less than 6,250 micromhos, and thedominant species is Sundari (Heritierafomes)
With salinity level between 6,250 and 12,500micromhos, and the dominant species is Gewa (Excoecariaagallocha).
With salinity level exceeding 12,500 micromhos, and thedominant species is Goran (Ceriopsdecandra)
Trees and Shrubs -
An estimated total of 334 plants species are present in the deltaic portion of Bangladesh. The mangrove plants species have adaptive features; they are usually evergreen and have thick leathery leaves to minimize transpiration.
These plants have interesting adaptive features to survive in the unstable conditions.
1. Root Buttress: When there is low tide than these roots are exposed to the air.
2. Few trees have erected roots that form the extension of the root system during ebb tide.
3. The seeds germinate before detaching from the parent plant.
Sunderban is extremely rich in the biodiversity of species. Unfortunately, the diversity is being reduced due to many reasons there has been a sharp decline in the population of Royal Bengal Tigers due to poaching and habitat loss.
Royal Bengal Tiger-
There are 350 tigers but the accurate number is not known because the tigerâ€™s ranges have become smaller and smaller.
Deer and Wild boar -
They form the main food diet of the tigers. Their droppings provide nutrition for insects and plants and help disperse seeds so that new colonization of plants can take place.
There were three well known species of...