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Edward Tolman Essay

842 words - 4 pages

Cognitive Theorist- Edward C. Tolman

Cognitive Theorist- Edward C. Tolman

Edward C. Tolman’s contributions to the research of learning and motivation were substantial to the field of psychology. Regard as a cognitive behaviorist, he acquired his specific behaviorism when the likes of Watson were governing the field (Kimble, 1991).
Through many of Tolman’s contributions to psychology, his trademark to the field of psychology took place at Berkeley this is where his cognitive learning theory was shaped. Tolman considered learning is encouraged from fragments of cognitions about the environment and the relationship with organisms. This theory was in distinction to the theories of ...view middle of the document...

Edward Tolman discovered the Stimulus-Response theory objectionable, because reinforcement was not essential for learning to take place. He considered behavior as natural, purposive, and cognitive. Tolman's analysis can be recapitulated by supposing behavior is not a reaction to a stimulus but is cognitive surviving with a sample of stimuli (Kimble, 1991). 
In Tolman’s Sign Gestalt Theory, he put forth the concept that there are three parts to learning therefore comes together as a gestalt. These are the "significant" or purpose of behavior, or indicator for action, and "means-end relations" which were internal developments and interactions. Tolman supposed learning is an accretion of these sign gestalts, and then they are configured into cognitive maps. Environmental processes also participates in behavior, therefore creates specific gestalts to be preferred, in relation to the individuals function or purpose, and other aspects; therefore, learning is distinctive to each individual.
Tolman initiated the name "cognitive map", which was an internal perceptual demonstration of external environmental traits and impact. He considered individuals attain vast amounts of indications environmental and encourages presumptions regarding their stability or variable distinctiveness. By exercises this internal image of a physical space they could get to the goal by knowing where it is in a compound of environmental aspects. Inconsistent routes and short-cuts are probable with this model. While behaviorists observation of preparation as a way to develop specified set of progression responses, Tolman contemplated that preparation would conduct inclination to go to a specified place; subjects would learn not only how to go, but where to go.
Tolman acknowledged himself as a behaviorist and abstain from the nature of introspection...

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