Name: Matthew Heneghan
Title: ’Edwardian Phase (1337-1360)’
Student Number: G00285881
Module: Irish and European History 1200-1600
There were many reasons why England and France went to war against each other in 1337. The war started over the English Kings claim to French territories the main territory was Gascony in southern France. Charles the king of France died in 1328 and was replaced by King Philip his own cousin. | 4 There was severe rivalry between the two nations for years. The French had backed the Scots in there rebellion against the English controlling Scotland. King Edward ǀǀǀ had a claim to the French throne but he was beaten to it by King Philip. This created a tension ...view middle of the document...
While the Battle of Sluys was at its climax Philip had lead an army to attack the Flemish England’s important ally. After hearing word of the disaster at Sluys he turned his attention to an English invasion. Edward invaded and split his large army into two. One was lead by the former French noble Robert of Artois who was exiled and an enemy of the King of French. Robert had little success and was quickly defeated and retreated. Edward however reached the walls of Tournai a large city in French. This city was very important for both kings. Edward lay siege to the walls but he did not assault and eventually Philip had reached the city with a large French army. However he once again did not want to fight face to face with The English Army. Edward who now was basically bankrupt was forced to negotiate a truce with King Philip. The truce was agreed in September and was only 9 months long. The truce also marked the end of the Anti-French coalition. Edward has borrowed large sums of money and had taken nothing of great value in first campaign in France. | 2
From 1341 to 1445 there a succession of truce’s. They were regularly broken by each side. In the summer of 1446 Edward launched another invasion of France with between 7000-10000 men. He landed in Normandy. He met little very little opposition at first. His most noted victory was the storming of Caen which was of useful value. Edward came within touching distance of the ultimate prize of Paris. However he decided to march north and here he met face to face in which was the first real face to face battle between the two great kings. The place where they met was Crecy. Edward had taken a stance there and Philip attacked him. The English long bowmen along with men at arms eased to victory and inflicted a psychological blow on Philip and his army. Philip himself fled the battlefield and his reputation was destroyed. Edward did not stop after the battle of Crecy he pushed on and besieged the city of Calais. | 5 The siege continued for months until eventually after enormous pressure the city fell to Edward. The French had called on the Scots to take the pressure off the French army. They did so and invaded northern England but were defeated at Neville’s cross. There king David was also captured and sent to the tower of London. This was a huge advantage for Edward as he didn’t have to worry about fighting on two fronts. In 1348 a horrible disease known as the ‘black death’...