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Effects Of Childcare Essay

4767 words - 20 pages

Quality Child Care:
An Examination of Non-maternal Care in Infancy
A Review of Literature

Lyndsey Owen
Soc 380
Professor Sharon Taylor
April, 2009
Quality Child Care:
An Examination of Non-maternal Care in Infancy
A Review of Literature
Nearly two-thirds of mothers of children under age six are in the labor force. With more than 13 million preschool-age children in some form of non-parental care, the need for child care is clear (Willer, 2001). The types of childcare utilized and employment decisions and attitudes about childcare often influence the decision of non-maternal in Infancy. U.S. Census Bureau found that in a typical week during the winter of 2002, 11.6 million ...view middle of the document...

Family and Maternal Employment Decisions
2. Predictors of Quality Child Care
3. Social and emotional and Behavioral Development
4. Cognitive and Language Development
5. Security of Infant Parent Attachment
Maternal Employment Decisions in the First Year of Infancy
Working parents decisions concerning maternal employment and preferred choice of child care are often determined by social, economic, interpersonal and contextual characteristics. In a historical study of maternal employment Volling and Belsky examined the influence of socio-economic, parental, infant and contextual factors upon mothers’ return to employment during the child’s first year of life (Volling and Belsky, 1993). Women were asked to rate retrospectively the importance to their employment decisions of four factors pre-identified by the authors: (1) family’s need for income; (2) fear of job loss; (3) personal desire to develop a career; and (4) personal enjoyment of working. A total of 39% rated the family’s need for income as absolutely essential in their decision to resume employment. The desire to develop a career, and their own personal enjoyment of working, were rated as important by a majority of women while ‘fear of job loss’ was rated as somewhat important by around 20%. The reasons study participants gave for returning to work varied according to their socio-economic backgrounds. Women with lower incomes and less education were more likely to cite the need for income as a main reason to return to work while women with higher incomes, more education and higher occupational status placed greater emphasis on career development and personal enjoyment of work (Volling and Belsky, 1993). In another study conducted by the NICHD Early Childcare Research Network in 2001 found that among a relatively privileged sub-sample of mothers participating in the early child care in the United States the main motive for returning to employment was mothers’ personal fulfillment closely followed by ‘financial reasons’ as an important factor in employment decisions (Leach et al, 2006). Study participants specifically mentioned that they enjoyed their job, have special skills to offer, and found employment a method of maintaining self-esteem (Leach et al, 2006). In another study researchers noted that personal reasons for returning to work relating to mothers’ own personal needs included their personal career orientation, their need for relationships outside motherhood, and their enjoyment of work (Belsky and Volling, 2003). Career orientation is also an important factor mentioned by more than one-third of interviewed individuals in the Infant Child Development Survey (Inf. Child Dev, 2006).Through researching the maternal employment decision it becomes clear that two factors for returning or continuing employment are economic need and personal fulfillment.
There are many financial reasons motivating women to return to employment. The increase in working mothers has lead...

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