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Effects Of Drugs Essay

4899 words - 20 pages

Effects of Drugs

A Term Paper
Presented to the Faculty
Of the English Department
Of Hope Christian High School

By:
Aldrin Aaron M. Agulan
High 4 - Purity
February 27 2013

Table of contents………

Acknowledgement……………………………..….

Introduction …..………………………………..…….1

Definition of terms …………………………….…....2

Effects of Drugs ...……….……………………..….3

Complication of addiction ....……….………………14

Conclusion …………………………………………15

Findings …………………….………………………21

Bibliography………………………………………...23

Appendix……………………………………………24

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank God for his unyielding guidance on my path through this term paper. I ...view middle of the document...

Drug addiction can be defined as a pattern of compulsive use of a psychoactive substance to the point where drug use interferes with one’s normal activities in life. In addition, cessation of drug use by an addict often leads to distressing physical and/or psychological withdrawal symptoms and drug craving. While acute drug withdrawal ends hours to days after cessation of use, drug cravings seem to be persistently elicited by drug cues for extended periods, or possibly permanently
Drug dependence is a distinct phenomenon from drug use, and therefore may require a separate evolutionary interpretation. For example, compulsive use of nicotine by smokers is very different from ceremonial used of peyote. The former is likely due to neuroadaptations stemming from repeated administration of certain types of drugs, while the latter is more likely to involve desired changes in perception of the world and of oneself. This paper will primarily discuss addiction rather than drug use.
As elaborated upon by Berridge & Robinson (1998), repeated administration of addictive drugs in rats cause persistent changes in behavioral reactions to drugs and drug-associated cues, as well as structural changes in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system neurons. The mesolimbic DA system has long been known to be involved in drug reward, as well as natural rewards such as food and sex. In particular, it is becoming increasingly clear that DA mediates in particular appetitive aspects of reward, or reward ‘wanting.’ This is in contrast to reward ‘liking,’ or the hedonic impact of rewards once they are received (which is mediated by other brain systems, perhaps especially opioid systems). In the absence of drugs, ‘wanting’ of an expected reward and ‘liking’ of the reward once it is received would be proportional.

Definitions

Definition of Drug Abuse

Drug abuse is using a drug excessively, or for purposes for which it was not medically intended.

Note: Drug abuse lead to drug dependence or addiction.

Definition of Physical Dependence

A physical dependence on a substance (needing the drug to function) is not always part of the definition of addiction. Some drugs (for example, some blood pressure medications) don't cause addiction but do cause physical dependence.

Definition of Psychological Dependence

Other drugs cause addiction without physical dependence, for example Morphine, Heroin and Cocaine.

Definition of Drug Addiction

A drug addiction is a person who takes excessive amount of drugs for prolonged periods and without medical indications, develops tolerance, and shows symptoms of withdrawal if he cannot get the drugs.

Most addicts have shown abnormal psychopathic traits before becoming addiction, and it is unusual for mentally normal person to become an addict, except possibly to barbiturates. Any drug with sedative, stimulating or hallucinogenic properties can become a drug of...

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