Paolo Virgil G. Mariano BLOCK EN
Ian Steven Corsame
Homework in ENLRES
“Educational Outcomes of Tutoring: A Meta-Analysis of Findings”
A meta-analysis of findings from 65 independent evaluations of school tutoring programs showed that these programs have positive effects on the academic performance and attitudes of those who receive tutoring. Tutored students outperformed control students on examinations, and they also developed positive attitudes toward the subject matter covered in the tutorial programs. The meta-analysis also showed that tutoring programs have positive effects on children who serve as tutors. Like the children they helped, the tutors gained a better ...view middle of the document...
Comparisons often focus on learning gains in the two types of classrooms, and sometimes also cover affective growth of tutored and untutored students.
Several major reviews of such studies have appeared in the educational literature in recent years (Devin-Sheehan, Feldman, & Allen, 1976; Ellson, 1976; Fitz-Gibbon, 1977; Rosenshine & Furst, 1969). Each of the reviews concluded that tutoring programs can contribute to the academic growth of the children who receive the tutoring and probably to the growth of the children who provide the tutoring as well. However, two of the reviews (Ellson, 1976; Rosenshine & Furst, 1969) reported that these contributions had been clearly demonstrated only for well-structured and cognitively oriented programs. Since each of the four reviews used relatively informal narrative and box score techniques for summarizing findings, none provided precise statements about the size of the learning gains to be expected from tutoring or about the conditions under which positive effects are likely to occur. For more precise conclusions, more formal review methods are needed.
In 1977 Hartley introduced the use of more powerful review methods into this area. The methodology that she employed, called "meta-analysis," was first described by Glass (1976) in his presidential address to the American Educational Research Association. Meta-analysis is simply the statistical analysis of a large collection of results from individual studies for the purpose of integrating the findings. Applying this method to findings on mathematics teaching in elementary and secondary schools, Hartley showed not only that the effects of tutoring were positive, but that they were stronger than those from such other individualizing teaching methods as computer-based instruction, programmed instruction, and instruction with individual learning packages. Hartley also showed that the effects of tutoring were significantly stronger in some situations than in others.
Although Hartley's study advanced knowledge of tutoring considerably, her...