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For current and future climatological effects of human influences, see global warming. For the study of past climate change, see paleoclimatology. For temperatures on the longest time scales, see geologic temperature record.
|Atmospheric sciences |
|Atmospheric physics |
|Atmospheric dynamics (category) |
|Atmospheric chemistry (category) |
|Weather (category) · (portal) ...view middle of the document...
1.1 Ocean variability |
|2.2 External forcing mechanisms |
|2.2.1 Human influences |
|2.2.2 Orbital variations |
|2.2.3 Solar output |
|2.2.4 Volcanism |
|2.2.5 Plate tectonics |
|3 Physical evidence for and examples of climatic change |
|3.1 Temperature measurements and proxies |
|3.2 Historical and archaeological evidence |
|3.3 Glaciers |
|3.4 Vegetation |
|3.5 Pollen analysis |
|3.6 Precipitation |
|3.7 Dendroclimatology |
|3.8 Ice cores |
|3.9 Insects |
|3.10 Fish |
|3.11 Sea level change |
|4 See also |
|5 References |
|6 Further reading |
|7 External links |
The most general definition of climate change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over long periods of time, regardless of cause. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Niño, do not represent climate change.
The term sometimes is used to refer specifically to climate change caused by human activity; for example, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change defines climate change as "a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods." In this latter sense, used especially in the context of...