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Employ Of Unused Agricultural Raw Materials For Energy Production: Substitution Of Fossil Fuels By Bio Fuels Produced Of Jatropha Curcas (Pine Nut) Oil For Power Generation In GalÁpagos Islands Ecuador

2214 words - 9 pages

EMPLOY OF UNUSED AGRICULTURAL RAW MATERIALS FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION: SUBSTITUTION OF FOSSIL FUELS BY BIO-FUELS PRODUCED OF JATROPHA CURCAS (PINE NUT) OIL FOR POWER GENERATION IN GALÁPAGOS ISLANDS-ECUADORDiana Barros matrikel #: 03648987INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUNDGalapagos Islands are located 1000 Km off the west coast of Ecuador. It includes 13 big islands (up to 10 Km2 surface), 5 small islands (between 1 to 10 Km2) and 107 rocks and islets. Together they form the Ecuadorian province of Galapagos and the National Park under the same name.For its political and economical management; the province is divided in 3 municipalities: Santa Cruz, San Cristóbal and Isabela which enclosed ...view middle of the document...

This program includes a series of strategies to replace the use of fossil fuels on the Islands to a safer and cleaner renewable energy sources.One of these strategies is to generate power by using bio-fuel. The selection of the bio fuel to be employed had to be made after analyzing the best alternative from economic and social point of view.With the support of the German agency for international cooperation GIZ and the technical assistance of the VWP company (Vereinigte Werkstätten für Pflanzenöltechnologie), a study was held in order to decide whether the use of vegetable oil as fuel was economical, environmental and technical is feasible.The results of this study showed that the best choice to be used as replacement for the diesel was the Jatropha (Pine Nut) oil produced in the continental province of Manabí.Manabí is a province located in the northeast coast of Ecuador. It has 18.400 Km2 surface and it is divided into 22 cantons. Because of its unpredictable and inconstant weather conditions, the land undergo under strong erosion and drought processes which made difficult for farmers to generate enough income. Therefore the poverty levels are higher and any project to change this situation is more than welcome.Regarding Jatropha crops, in Manabí this kind of plant is widely extended because of its use as natural fence which makes it a cheaper resource for delimiting the agricultural crops. There is almost 7000 Km of natural fences made of pine nut plants.The project's execution pretends to create a synergy between the 2 provinces (Galápagos and Manabí) in which both provinces are benefit. In one hand, Galapagos reduces its environmental threats and in Manabí, local farmers improve their economy. The project is funded by the Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energies, the United Nations Development Program and the German agency for international cooperation.As a pilot study, Floreana Island was chosen for the project implementation. So a whole transformation of its electrical system was held in order that the pine nut oil can be suitable for power generation. Two new generators were installed and new fuel storage tanks were built.JATROPHA CURCAS (PINE NUT)Jathropa curcas or pine nut is a flowering plant of the spurge family. The pine nut has its origins in Central America, but it has very good adaptation qualities. That's why nowadays it can be found as a crop in different parts of the world; South America, Southeast Asia and Africa.The pine nut is an oilseed plant that has a productive cycle that can reach 50 years. It is fast growing and its heights are between 2 to 3 meters. The seed has an elliptical shape and produces between 30 to 37% of oil. This oil is not able to human consumption because it has toxic substances.Picture 1. Jatropha's fruitIt is planted in Manabí to be used as a natural fence for delimiting the agricultural crops. Its seeds produce oil with similar...

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