Running Head: EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
Employee Motivation and Conflict Management
Lisa Harrell, Mara Crutchfield, Melanie Mimnall, Mike Lawrence, and Stephany Boles
Professor Debra Black
February 19, 2011
Motivation theories and organizational behavior are determent for successful productivity in an organization. This paper will elaborate different motivational theories that are often implemented in the workplace. Because organizations vary in areas of business demands and circumstances, differing motivational theories can be explored upon. While some people motivate through money and incentives of that nature, others are driven by ...view middle of the document...
al, pg. 111). Motivation theories contribute to our understanding of motivation to work and in the studying of different theories. The goal is to gather useful insights that integrate motivational approaches that are appropriate for different situations (Schermerhorn et. al., pg. 111). Different theories of motivation disclose options available for trying to motivate employees.
Abraham Maslow’s Theory
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs identifies five levels of needs; self-actualization, esteem, social, safety, and physiological needs. Needs are meet in an order of importance and as these needs are meet, they serve as motivators to obtain other needs. Self-actualization is the ultimate need. However, this level of achievement is not reachable until esteem and social needs are reached.
Fredrick Herzberg’s Theory
The two-factor theory by Frederick Herzberg, explains the sources of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction as the two-factor theory. Motivation factors are cause of job satisfaction in several instances. Some factors include things like, achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth. Hygiene factors are sources of dissatisfaction such as organizational policies, quality of supervision, working conditions, salary, and relationships with peers. However, low-levels of job satisfaction do not necessarily imply the employee lacks satisfaction. Equally implied, a low level of job dissatisfaction does not imply that an employee has total job satisfaction (Udechukwu, 2009. p. 79).
Douglas McGregor’s Theory
Douglas McGregor introduced the X and Y theories. The X theory says managers are responsible for the organization of humans, materials, and machines (Halepota, 2005. p. 15). According to Theory X, management or managers should assume that workers are indolent, lack aspiration, avoid work when possible, do not take responsibility, put themselves before the organization, oppose changes, are easily fooled, and should be punished for their wrong doing and rewarded for their extra efforts (Halepota, 2005. p. 15).
The Expectancy Theory
The expectancy theory is a theory based on the perception of the individual. A person’s confidence in his or her ability and belief he or she will benefit from the job, determines the level of expectancy once the goal is achieved. According to the expectancy theory, the more beneficial the reward is to the person, the more perceptive the person will be.
Organizational Differences in Motivational Theories
Job motivation exists in various forms and it depends on the employee. Well-motivated employees are usually more productive and are a sign of job satisfaction. Money and job security can be a motivator if an employee struggles to make ends meet. Employee’s benefits such as time off, health insurance, retirement plan, and stock options may be a motivator for an employee whose motivation is more than just receiving a paycheck. Still yet another motivator...