Employee engagement is a complex paradigm that is shaped by a variety of factors in the
workplace environment, the managing organisation and its employees. Oneâ€™s engagement to their
workplace actuates the amount of commitment and personal alignment with the organisationâ€™s
goals, which in turn determines the overall performance of the organisation. Since different
organisations employ different methods of improving such a relationship, the observation of
variances and its effects can assist in the study of how employee engagement can be improved.
Highly engaged employees are more devoted and loyal to the organisation, creating mutually
beneficial effects such as greater ...view middle of the document...
There is also a significant
correlation between job satisfaction and employee engagement, shown by a study from Masvaure
et al. (2014), where the two factors were found to have a relationship of r = 0.543; n = 156, p â‰¤
0.001, indicating a large influence on one another. Thus improved employee engagement would
require action on the part of human resources management to increase the job satisfaction â€“ a
viable course of action as on a global scale, human resources departments are responsible for nearly
half of the engagement programs (Melcrum employee engagement survey, 2007/08, in Jafri, 2013).
A sound method of improving job satisfaction involves the human resources management
function of an organisation. Since the HRM determines recruitment, job assignment and task design
(Jafri, 2013), it has considerable influence on employee engagement. Mathis (2013) suggests that
there are â€œThree â€˜Aâ€™s of Engagementâ€ â€“ affinity, affiliation and autonomy â€“ that affect the basic
human needs and motivation of employees. It is profitable for employees to be involved in tasks that
they do best, personally like doing, and feel a â€œstrong sense of psychological ownershipâ€ over
(Luthans & Peterson, 2002, in Shuck, 2011), as it leads to enhanced engagement and organisational
effectiveness. Another study supports this relationship, in which employee engagement was
indicative of job satisfaction as engaged employees create an enjoyable and enthusiastic workplace
environment within the organisation (Alamelu et al., 2014).
One strategy outlined by Mathis (2013) challenges workers to get involved with worthwhile
causes, sparking affinity and motivation. Motivated employees are self-driven and personally
committed to their job, delivering relatively superior performance in contrast to unmotivated
individuals, and consequently tend to have high job satisfaction (Arrowsmith & Parker, 2013). When
employees feel as though they are receiving a worthwhile return in the form of satisfaction and
personal fulfilment from their achievements, the situation facilitates motivation to become more
engaged with their work â€“ creating a sense of meaningfulness and value in the employeeâ€™s
perception of their job. Since autonomy as a strategy utilises and promotes affinity and affiliation
(Mathis, 2013), the organisation will need to implement such strategies in the pursuit of improved
Conversely, there are circumstances in which certain factors can inhibit employee
engagement â€“ one example being the â€œineffectivenessâ€ (Masvaure et al., 2014) of employees as a
result of ineffective human resource management. As detailed in the conceptualisation of â€œburnoutâ€
as the antithesis of engagement, employees who are overextended in positions beyond their
interest can experience exhaustion â€“ depleted of oneâ€™s emotional and physical resources
(Arrowsmith & Parker, 2013). Congruently,...