Motivation can be defined as: the psychological forces that push an individual’s behavior, effort, and level of persistence towards a certain direction. Motivation is, therefore, an important element an organization must consider when it wants to reach high levels of production and efficiency.
In order to achieve the mentioned high production and efficiency levels, an organization must first understand what motivation is, how does it work, what are the classic motivational theories and techniques, and to use utilize those various techniques for optimum results.
As explained above, motivation involves psychological forces that push employees into a desired ...view middle of the document...
3) Locke’s goal theory: founded by Edwin A. Locke is a motivational theory that proposes employees’ involvement in setting organizational goals, thus increasing performance and motivation.
4) Finally, Vroom’s expectancy theory: Created by Victor Vroom with the belief that motivation is based on the expectation of desired outcomes. The theory is made of three elements: valence, expectancy, and force. Valence is the attractiveness of rewards. Expectancy is the belief of reaching or not reaching the desired goal. Force is an individual’s motive to perform or act.
There are several classic techniques used for motivational purposes, a few of them are mentioned below:
1) Job design: Described as the design of an employee’s job in a way that is both interesting and challenging to keep him/her motivated. Job design has four methods: Job simplification (Standardizing and simplifying tasks), job rotation (the periodical movement of employees into different tasks), job enlargement (greater variety of tasks given to workers), and job enrichment (enhancement of the actual job). The job design model is an effective approach for employee motivation.
2) Employee participation: is another effective technique for increasing workers’ motivation. The principle behind this tool is to get more employee integration within the work environment. This includes solving problems, generating ideas, open-book management, employee empowerment, and centralization of management.
3) Rewards: Rewards is probably one of the oldest techniques for motivation. The rewarding approach divides motivation into two types: intrinsic and extrinsic. The former is associated with internal psychological rewards such as a sense of accomplishment. The latter is associated with external rewards such as money and bonuses. Also, intrinsic motivation can be represented by the Job Characteristics Model. This Model is designed by Oldham and Hackman to improve and increase workers’ intrinsic motivation. It also describes jobs in terms of their attributes. These attributes are: