Endocrine System Essay

1254 words - 6 pages

Lecture: The Endocrine System

The endocrine system is a chemical control system. It functions in conjunction with the nervous system to control the internal environment (homeostasis).

I. Endocrine Glands

A. Glands without ducts

1. Secrete HORMONES ("to set in motion") into the intercellular spaces and they pass directly into the blood and is then distributed to all parts of the body via the circulatory system.

2. Hormones - chemical secretions of the endocrine glands.
a. chemical types -
1). proteins and polypeptides (endodermal origin)
2). Amines (endodermal origin)
...view middle of the document...

Structure

1. Anterior lobe – [glandular part] - Adenohypophysis
2. Posterior lobe – [neural part] – Neurohypophysis

C. Anterior Pituitary - (Adenohypophysis)

1. Hormone secretions controlled by secretions from the hypothalamus produced by nerve cells and control the release of hormones by Endocrine glands; these hormones are called releasing factor

Growth Hormone (GH) - Somatotrophic Hormone (STH)

1. Increases Growth and Maintenance of Organs by:

a. stimulating protein anabolism
b. promotes fat catabolism (use of fat rather than sugars for energy)

2. Abnormal Secretions of STH

a. Giantism -- hypersecretion during childhood (before epiphyseal plates close)
b. Acromegaly -- hypersecretion during adulthood
c. Dwarfism -- hyposecretion during childhood
d. Cachexia (Simmond's Disease) - hyposecretion during adulthood causes premature aging and atrophy of organs

Prolactin - (Lactogenic Hormone)

1. promotes breast development during pregnancy
2. stimulates mammary glands to produce milk after delivery

Thyriod Stimulating Hormone (TSH) - (Thyrotropin)

1. promotes growth of the Thyroid Gland
2. stimulates the secretion of the Thyroid Hormone

Adrenocorticotropin -- (ACTH)

1. promotes growth of the Adrenal Cortex
2. stimulates the secretion of Cortical Hormones
3. stimulates Fat Catabolism & Glycogenesis

Gonadotropins - FSH and LH

1. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
a. female - stimulates the Ovarian Follicles to Develop and produce ova
- stimulates the Ovarian Follicles to secrete Estrogens
b. male - stimulates the production of sperm
- stimulates the secretion of Testosterone

2. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
a. female - associated with FSH in development of the Ovarian Follicles
- stimulates development of the Corpus Luteum following ovulation
- stimulates Corpus Luteum to secrete Progesterone
b. male - stimulates the Interstitial Cells to secrete Testosterone
(also called Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone [ICSH])
D. Posterior Pituitary Lobe (Neurohypophysis)

1. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) - produced in the hypothalamus and collected and secreted by the posterior lobe

a. increases the permeability of the kidney tubules to water
b. promotes the reabsorption of the water from the urinary filtrate resulting in a smaller volume of urine
c. Diabetes insipidus - condition resulting in...

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