Engagement at work was conceptualized by Kahn, (1990) as the µharnessing of organizational members¶ selves to their work roles. In engagement, people employ andexpress themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances.The second related construct to engagement in organizational behavior is the notion of flow advanced by Csikszentmihalyi (1975, 1990). Csikzentmihalyi (1975) defines flow asthe µholistic sensation¶ that, people feel when they act with total involvement. Flow isthe state in which there is little distinction between the self and environment. Whenindividuals are in Flow State little conscious control is necessary for their actions.Employee ...view middle of the document...
Furthermore engagement entails the active use of emotions. Finally engagement may bethought of as an antecedent to job involvement in that individuals who experience deepengagement in their roles should come to identify with their jobs.When Kahn talked about employee engagement he has given important to all threeaspects physically, cognitively and emotionally. Whereas in job satisfaction importancehas been more given to cognitive side.
HAPPINESS AT WORK
Dr Laurel Edmunds and Jessica Pryce-Jones have researched the issue of happiness at work atlength and have produced the following definition from their findings:
Happiness at work is about mindfully making the best use of the resources you have to overcome thechallenges you face. Actively relishing the highs and managing the lows will help you maximize your performance and achieve your potential. And this not only builds your happiness but also that of others--who will be affected and energized by what you do.
The use of positive psychologyin business has become an increasingly popular and valuable tool withwhich to manage and develop staff.
This then has a flow-on effect for the community that they work in.When these practices are put in place in a community²in this case the business²generally the outcome is
a real, direct benefit to the productivity of the business and to a happier and healthier employee asdiscussed by Rath & Clifton (2005).
With the major advances in technology, particularly in a modern office environment, a greater range of information has become easily available at employees¶ fingertips. Staff today generally have a muchbroader knowledge of business environments, and therefore their minimum expectations of what a modernworkplace should provide to keep them happy and motivated is fairly high. Very basic programs can beimplemented to meet these needs and expectations. As an example, if we achieve target µA¶, a new filteredcoffee machine will be installed to replace the instant coffee in the staff room.
hese minor rewards canhave a large impact on the staff¶s happiness and moods²indeed, the frequency of minor positive rewards iscritical for success.One of the main benefits to a business with a well-planned and well-run program is increased productivitythrough greater output and less down time.
hrough a successful positive psychology program, staff candevelop a deeper satisfaction in their workplace relationships, and therefore the quality of their work tendsto improve, as well. A proactive business manager in today¶s business world caters to the needs of his or her staff either by ensuring a well-run in-house program or by bringing in experts to facilitate thedevelopment of one.
REVIEW OF LITERATUREOn employee emgagement
1. A global study of over 50,000 employees found that those employees who are most engaged perform 20% better and they are 87% less likely to leave.
Corporate Leadership Council 2004
2. Along with a...