Engineering 101 Essay

2023 words - 9 pages

© Whitewater Limited 2012

Engineering Design Considerations
Richard Hill

Whitewater Limited
Consulting Engineers & Scientists

Aims and Objectives

• • •

To be able to calculate resin volumes and vessel sizes To appreciate hydraulic effects To understand regeneration sequence
– counter flow regeneration systems – stratified bed operation – mixed beds

• •
© Whitewater Limited 2012

To be familiar with vessels and internals To understand EDI

Process Design Parameters
regeneration level (eq/l)

Regeneration Ratio = exchange capacity (eq/l) flow rate (m3/h)

Hydraulic loading (BV/h) = resin volume (m3) 1


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EBCT (h) = ...view middle of the document...

Hydraulic Design

Head loss through resin,

h = l.k.va.1.02(15where

)

© Whitewater Limited 2012

• •

l = bed depth, m (typically 1 - 3m) va = approach velocity, m/h = temperature, oC T k = constant (0.10 - 0.15 depending on bead size) h 10m (1bar) to avoid resin compaction Minimum velocity 1m/h to ensure good distribution

Hydraulic Design

Deeper bed
– sharper exhaustion front – smaller diameter - lower capital cost – higher headloss - higher operating cost


© Whitewater Limited 2012

Shallower bed
– more diffuse exhaustion front – larger diameter - higher capital cost – lower head loss - lower operating cost

Hydraulic Design

Uniform bead size
– – – – – – lower head loss (close hexagonal packing) allows use of smaller beads which have higher area:volume ratio and hence higher capacity with faster kinetics allowing higher hydraulic loading


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Short Cycle Designs
– Run time around 2-4h – Regeneration around ½h

Regeneration Sequence

Regenerant Injection
– Treated water – 4 - 7BV/h – 10 - 20BV/h sulphuric acid


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Regenerant Injection Strength
– – – – Sodium chloride 10% HCl 4 - 6% H2SO4 1 - 3% to avoid CaSO4 precipitation NaOH 3 - 5%

Regeneration Sequence

• •

Regenerant Displacement
– Treated water – Same direction and rate as injection

Rinse
– Raw water – Service direction to drain

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Counter Flow Regeneration
REGENERANT DRAIN

REGEN STRENGTH EXHAUSTION

REGEN STRENGTH EXHAUSTION

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DRAIN

REGENERANT

CO-FLOW REGENERATION CO-FLOW REGENERATION

REVERSE FLOW REGENERATION COUNTERFLOW REGENERATION

Reverse Flow Regeneration

• •

Relies on preventing bed mixing during or after regeneration Maintaining bed compaction
– – – – – – air hold down split flow Schwebbebett (upflow service) UPCORE (downflow service) Amberpack upflow service packed bed Puropack upflow or downflow service packed bed

© Whitewater Limited 2012

Air Hold Down
AIR

• •
DRAIN

• • • • •

Bed held by downwards air flow Complicated buried collector 150mm below top of bed Top 150mm resin not used Full bed backwash possible Active resin volume fixed by collector position Suitable for stratified bed Expensive design

© Whitewater Limited 2012

REGENERANT

Split Flow
REGENERANT

• • • • • • • •

DRAIN
© Whitewater Limited 2012

Regenerant enters top and bottom simultaneously Complicated buried collector 3:1 split Top resin regenerated in co-flow Top of bed backwash possible Resin volume can be increased Not suitable for stratified bed Expensive design

REGENERANT

Schwebbebett
REGENERANT

• • • •
INERT RESIN

© Whitewater Limited 2012

• • • • • • •

Freeboard 50-100mm based on expanded resin Service flow is upwards at rate to lift and compact bed Inert resin protects top nozzles Flow must be continuous to maintain...

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