2086 review questions:
Answer each question and use your textbook for assistance.
Chapter 16, The Endocrine System
Describe the two general mechanisms of hormone action and indicate how they relate to neural transmission.
Describe how hormone release is regulated and its three major types of stimuli.
List and describe the functions of the major endocrine organs.
Explain the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary.
Define and describe prolactin and oxytocin.
Describe the location, function and structure of the following terms: thyroid gland and parathyroid hormone. Include the effects of both hormones.
Name two endocrine glands ...view middle of the document...
Include the major vessels associated with each.
Trace the pathway of blood through the heart and lungs.
Review coronary circulation.
Define cardiac muscle.
Compare intrinsic and extrinsic control mechanisms of the heart.
Describe the two heart sounds and how heart murmurs differ.
Define cardiac output and how it is regulated.
Identify risk factors for cardiac disease.
Chapter 19, The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels
List the three major types of blood vessels.
Compare and contrast the structure and function of arteries, veins, and capillaries.
Define the following terms: vasoconstriction and vasodilation.
Compare the three types of capillaries in structure, function, and location.
Discuss the structure and function of a capillary bed.
Define the following terms: blood flow, blood pressure, and resistance. Include the relationship between these factors.
List three important sources of resistance.
Identify the factors that affect blood pressure and vascular resistance.
Define the following terms: hypertension and circulatory shock.
Name the short-term and long-term mechanisms of blood pressure.
Review the neural control mechanisms.
Trace the changes in velocity as blood travels from arteries to capillaries to veins.
Discuss how fetal circulation differs from circulation after birth.
Chapter 20, The Lymphatic System
List the major components and functions of the lymphatic system.
Describe the function of lymphatic vessels, capillaries, collecting vessels, and trunks.
Name the location and function of diffuse lymphatic tissue and lymphoid follicles (nodules).
List the major lymph organs and functions of each.
Define lymph nodes.
Describe the functions and structure of lymph nodes, spleen and thymus.
List the three types of tonsils.
Chapter 21, The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses
Describe functions of the immune system.
Discuss the difference between adaptive (specific) and innate (non-specific) defenses.
Describe the function of skin as a surface barrier.
Explain the roles of phagocytosis and natural killer cells in the innate body defense.
Describe the effects of inflammatory response and the four signs of acute inflammation.
Name and describe the process by which phagocytes are mobilized to infiltrate injured cells.
List the two most important antimicrobial proteins.
Define humoral and cellular immunity.
Define antigens and describe its two important functional properties.
Define and differentiate primary and secondary immune response.
List and describe the five classes of antibodies.
Describe the four defensive mechanisms used by antibodies.
Review the formation and types of T cells.
Distinguish between active and passive immunity.
Explain how allergic reactions, tissue rejection reactions, and autoimmunity are related.
Compare the functions of cell-mediated immunity...