Environmental Isolate Essay

1420 words - 6 pages

Enumerating Bacteria in Hamburger Meat from Various Sources in Flagstaff, AZ.
Ryan Kelly
October 18,2013
Section D

It is commonly known that bacteria can be found in places like bathrooms and sinks but they can also be found in unwanted places such as food. Over 70 million cases of food-borne illnesses are reported every year in the U.S. according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (Linscott, 2011). Although the government tries to regulate the amount of bacteria in meat that cause food borne illnesses, certain bacteria that cause illness don’t receive notice (Waters et al. 2011). Organizations, such as the National Antimicrobial Resistance ...view middle of the document...

The European Food Safety Authority, EFSA, have introduced a qualified presumption safety approach in order to assess the microorganisms throughout the food industry (Talon & Leroy, 2011). The assessment looks at qualifications like taxonomy and pathogenicity, along with the amount of bacteria found in meat. By enumerating bacteria and observing the concentration in meat, it can be determined if the governmental food regulation system is efficient.
For the experiment, samples of different hamburger meat from around the Flagstaff area were used to observe the amount of bacteria found in each sample. It can be determined how well the food contamination regulation system really is. It was hypothesized that if meat samples were handled correctly, the samples would have little to no bacteria on them. The experiment was done by distributing 1:10 serial dilutions of hamburger solution into four spread plates and four pour plates. After a week, the colonies on the plates were counted using a viable count assay on the pour and spread plates.
All of the meat samples collected were from various locations in Flagstaff, Arizona. First a culture tube containing hamburger meat was made into 1:10 serial dilutions using .75% NaCl. Having different dilutions can ensure that there will be some plates with colonies between 30 and 300, otherwise the plate would be marked as NSS, not significant sample, or TCTC, too numerous to count.
For the five spread plates, 0.1 mL of the 10-2 dilution was placed onto the plate marked 10-3. A glass hockey stick was then dipped into ethanol and ignited using the Bunsen burner to sterilize it. Once the hockey stick cooled, the.1 mL of dilution was spread evenly over the surface of the plate. The stick was then flame sterilized again and the same procedure was repeated for the 10-3, 10-4, 10-5 tube dilutions. The last plate had .1mL of sterile diluents added to the plate for the control plate. The same process was repeated for the five pour plates except for after the dilution was added to each plate, molten NA was poured into the plate to cover bottom completely and gently mixed with the dilution and allowed to cool. Once cooled, the plates were incubated at room temperature for a week before each spread and pour plate were counted for colonies. Then the titer was determined by dividing the number of colonies found on each plate by the dilution.
All methods from Shand (2012).
The results show that each sample had at least 1.00X104 cfu/g. The sample with the highest amount of bacteria colonies was sample A with 8.04X10^7 cfu/g for the spread plate and 1.13X1068 cfu/gm for the pour plate. Sample B had the least amount of colonies on the pour plate. Sample D,C, and E had around the same amount of colony forming units for the spread plate and the pour plate.
Table 1: Average Concentration of Bacteria from Each Sample and Total Average of Spread/Pour Plates.
| A | B | C | D | E | Average...

Other Essays Like Environmental Isolate

Analysing Economic Environment Essay

2542 words - 11 pages payment; collection of income tax and national insurance contributions; sales tax (VAT). General illegality of cartels Company Law Employment Law Health and safety Data protection Marketing and sales Environment Tax Law Competition Law KEY DRIVERS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE MARKET GLOBALISATION Gradual globalization of markets is taking place because of the interplay of a number of forces. It is impossible to isolate a simple chain of

Microbiology Essay

1297 words - 6 pages would respond.  The first test that will be discussed is a gram stain.  This is one of the most important parts in figuring out bacteria.  Usually a Gram-positive cell will appear purple and a Gram-negative will appear pink.  My results for this test were Gram-positive cocci.  A capsule stain is preformed to see if the bacteria cells of some species are protected against harsh environmental conditions. A capsule is a complex layer of sugars and

Implementing Strategy: Change Agenda and Starting Conditions

1109 words - 5 pages you have in mind * The crisis curve identifies three categories of urgency ranging from the relatively low pressure of anticipatory change to the absolutely immediate demands of crisis change * To implement strategic changes of the future, would be an act of anticipatory change * Management reacting to current environmental pressures of deteriorating performance is reactive change * When the business falls down this slop and

Compare and Contrast the Approaches of Buchanan and Monderman

1539 words - 7 pages strategy was to separate pedestrians from motor vehicles on the streets so that each group would be assigned to have their own unshared space. 'The key principle was to isolate 'rooms' for working, shopping and leisure from the 'corridors' where traffic would move. Buchanan called these isolated areas 'environmental units"(Silva, 2009, p.328). 'Traffic is viewed in the report as an agent because it has an active role in shaping the ways people live

Heating Pipes

1355 words - 6 pages Solar Heating of Water Solar Heating of Water 3/17/2010 Environmental Science 102 lab Lloyd J. Cookus III Wendell JJ Our objective in this project is to continue and build on the work of previous students; as well as, extend the work of previous researchers in order to create a system that produces hot water. As a group we came up with a proposal that we trust will lead to the success of solar water heating. Our proposal

Attributes of Intimate Social Relationships and Personal Identity

1363 words - 6 pages relationships affect adaptations to the changing needs and stresses that evolve with each stage of development throughout one's lifetime. Intimate interactions from early life serve as the basis upon which relationships later in life are formed. Environmental contingencies to which individuals must adapt are rooted in these relationships. In an attempt to adapt to other people's styles of relating, one must adjust his or her own behaviors. Based on

5 Reasons for Acquisitions

1362 words - 6 pages strategies 1. Multidomestic -Decentralized strategic & operating decisions by strategic business-unit (SBU) in each country allows units to tailor products to local markets -Focuses on variations of competition within each country -Customized products to meet local customers’ specific needs and preferences -Takes steps to isolate the firm from global competitive forces *Establish protected market positions *Compete in industry segments most

test upload

5570 words - 23 pages and preparing for problems can help in their resolution. The lists above may help with this task. Change control and measurement can help to isolate changes and alert team members when they happen. Monitoring environmental variables, saving database contents and using configuration management can all be used to avoid or mitigate problems. Maintaining data with automated, repeatable (and debuggable) scripts reduces the number of data maintenance

Crop Improvement

2075 words - 9 pages , which were soon exploited in a wide variety of seed-propagated crops, including naturally self-pollinated ones, such as tomato and rice. A number of genetic techniques were developed and refined in twentieth-century breeding, such as improved techniques to search for and store increased genetic variability, different techniques to develop variable populations for selection, and improved methods of testing to separate genetic from environmental

Sustainable Architecture

5197 words - 21 pages , increased demand on resources, continued pollution, sustainability is quickly becoming the dominant issue of the 21st Century. It is an issue that each of us, as individuals need to address in our daily life and work. While environmental and economic sustainability is the goal, sustainable design is the means we as designers have to contribute to that goal. Sustainable design moves away from extractive and disposable systems that are energy

Marketing plan

3152 words - 13 pages -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 Environmental scanning ----------------------------------------------------------------- 5 Competitor analysis ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 Customer Analysis ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 Market-Product Focus Marketing and Product Objectives ---------------------------------------------------- 6 Target

Related Papers

Environmental Management Accounting As A Strategy For

3161 words - 13 pages reducing them can be fashioned out. The systematic use of EMA principles will assist managers in identifying environmental costs often hidden in a general accounting system. When hidden, it is impossible to know what share of the costs is related to any particular product or process or is actually environmental. Without the ability to isolate and separate this portion of the overall cost from that of production, product pricing will not reflect the

Biodiversity Essay

2013 words - 9 pages Biodiversity Lasnosha Snowden ENV 300 Environmental Science Nicole Minor June 15, 2015 All living organisms are present in ecosystems to coexist together to create biodiversity and without different species, these environment could fail horribly. Every living organism has a purpose in order to keep the balance of biodiversity. In order for there to be “biological diversity, these items are organized at many levels, ranging from complete

Network Management Systems Essay

879 words - 4 pages perfect NMS should do all of the listed items below: * Simple to use * Maintain and monitor all networks from one terminal * Can handle multi vendor hardware and software * Gives smart and accurate performance measurement * Have many different networking tools built in that can work across the network * Able to detect network problems and isolate them immediately * Cost effective Many vendors are trying to develop a NMS

Development Through The Life Stages Essay

1508 words - 7 pages Life Factor | Genetic | Biological | Environmental | Socio-economic | Lifestyle | The causes of the life factor | Down Syndrome | Foetal alcohol syndrome | Bullying | Peer groups | Smoking | The effect on the development on an individual (PIES) | The physical side effect to a child with down syndrome is that they have a small nose and they have a flat nasal bridge, they also have a small mouth, their eyes slant either upwards or downwards