Epidemic of Zika Virus
March 7, 2016
Epidemic of Zika Virus
Zika virus is a rising mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first found in rhesus monkey in Zika forest present in Uganda in the year 1947. Before the year 2007, few cases of the infection caused by the virus in human beings were found in the some countries from Africa and Asia. First reported outbreak of the infection occurred 2007 in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia. After that, some outbreaks were reported in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in America, first local transmission of Zika virus occurred in May ...view middle of the document...
Researchers are of opinion that transmission of Zika virus could occur through tissue or organ transplantation (Hennessey et al., 2016).
Role of immune system in the body against the disease
Body starts working to inhibit the activity of virus. Anti-Zika virus IgG and IgM antibodies can start functioning in the body after appearance of the virus in the body. However, the virus can also result in the development of autoimmune reactions in the body as, for example, Guillain-Barré syndrome, which is an autoimmune disease, has also been reported in the outbreaks of the infection caused by the virus (Hennessey et al., 2016).
Symptoms of the disease and other problems associated with the disease
Reports are showing that nearly 80% of patients of Zika virus infection are asymptomatic. Usually, symptomatic disease is mild, and symptoms of the disease caused by Zika virus may share some similarities with the diseases caused by dengue and chikungunya viruses. Therefore, symptoms of the disease may include acute onset of headache, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, eye pain, maculopapular rash, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis, and a combination of symptoms that may disturb differential diagnosis in patients, who moved to areas with continuing transmission in the 2 weeks before the onset of illness. Symptoms may last up to seven days. In the recent outbreaks in Brazil, Zika virus RNA has been found in tissues from many infants having microcephaly as well as from fetal losses in women, in whom infection developed during pregnancy. Guillain-Barré syndrome was also found in patients, who were suspected of having Zika virus infection (Fauci & Morens, 2016, Hennessey et al., 2016; Mlakar et al., 2016).
Treatment and Prevention of further outbreaks
Zika virus infection still lacks any specific treatment, though supportive treatment is present including the use of fluids, lot of rest, and administration of antipyretics and analgesics However, some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin have to be avoided as the presence of other diseases such as dengue fever can aggravate the problems. Acetaminophen can be used in...