Erik Erikson’s Stages Of Child Development

1210 words - 5 pages

Erik Erikson presented eight stages of human development, which last throughout an entire life-span. Throughout each developmental stage, each developmental task presents a catastrophe for the individual. Erikson defined catastrophe as “a turning point of increased vulnerability and enhanced potential” (Santrock 73). Each of Erikson’s developmental stages is presented in such a way that the negatives and positives are clearly defined. Although there are eight developmental stages, five pertain to a child’s development.
The first stage, which occurs during the first year of life, is labeled as trust versus mistrust. Trust is developed when the caregiver is nurturing which gives ...view middle of the document...

At this stage, children master knowledge and educational skills with the help of an elementary school classroom. If children believe that they are not mastering skills at a level as same as their peers, children may develop a sense of inferiority which may also hinder the educational experience throughout a child’s entire life. When a child passes through Erikson’s fourth stage and into adolescence, the child experiences a stage identified as identity versus identity confusion. Identity versus identity confusion is the final stage that affects a child’s development. Children at this stage are searching for their own identities through many avenues to identify themselves in the way they feel. A child at this age should be able to search out his or her own identity because; if the child is constrained in anyway the child may become identity confused. Identity confusion is caused when a child fails to choose any one identity but instead chooses several to identify his or her self.
With the eight stages of Erik Erikson’s developmental theory, five occur between birth and twenty years old that affect a child’s development greatly. Every person throughout life experiences each stage within Erikson’s theory whether the outcome is negative or positive however, if the outcome is negative the next stage cannot occur.

Urie Bronfenbrenner proposed an ecological theory that focuses on the social contexts in which children and their influences live (Santrock 71). Bronfenbrenner’s theory contains five environmental systems, which include microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem.
The environmental systems can viewed as a sphere having several layers with the innermost, smallest layer being the individual. The first environmental system is microsystem, or the next ring of the sphere. The microsystem is an environment in which an individual interacts one-on-one with parents, teachers, peers, etcetera. The microsystem is the smallest environment in which an individual lives in or experiences outside his or her own self. The next larger environmental system is the mesosystem. According to Santrock, the mesosystem is the linkage between microsystems and is when an individual connects peer and family experiences with school experiences (Santrock 72). While microsystems are on a more influential personal basis, the exosystem is more broad, which is the third of Bronfenbrenner’s environmental systems. When experiences occur in another setting impact what an individual experiences in his or her smaller environmental systems is the exosystem. A city government is an example of a mesosystem because laws passed by a town affect those in smaller personal environments but the individuals rarely influence a city council. The final...

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