Essay On Theories Behind And Motivation Techniques, Including The Herzberg Theory, Etc As Applied To An Organization. Word Count: 1805

1926 words - 8 pages

IntroductionOver the years, numerous theories have been proposed attempting to capture the various sources of motivation energizing individual behavior. These theories all propose a limited set of motivational sources, some arranged in a hierarchy, other viewed as developmental stages and still others theorizing no basic process of transition from one source to another.In this document, our group will describe the different theories on employee motivation and describe how our chosen organization, Xxx, modeled its people's strategy around the basic principles of Frederick Herzberg's Theory.The Acquired-needs TheoryIn his acquired-needs theory, David McClelland proposed that an individual's ...view middle of the document...

It is the drive to form and maintain meaningful relationships with others. They tend to conform to the norms of their work group. They perform well in customer service and client interaction situations.A person who has a need for power (nPower) they desire or drive to influence, or have impact on others. It urges one to acquire control of others and prestige. (Schermerhorn, p. 112). Those who need personal power want to direct others, and this need often is perceived as undesirable. Persons who need institutional power (also known as social power) want to organize the efforts of others to further the goals of the organization. Managers with a high need for institutional power tend to be more effective than those with a high need for personal power.People with different needs are motivated differently. In a workplace setting the high achievers should be given challenging projects with reachable goals, and they should be provided frequent feedback. High need for affiliation employees with a high affiliation need perform best in a cooperative environment. While the high need for power employees seek power in the opportunity to manage others.The Relatedness and growth Theory (ERG)Clayton Alderfer's Existence, Relatedness and Growth Theory (ERG) are based on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory. Where Maslow had five needs in his theory, Alderfer condenses these down to three categories. The first is existence needs that pertain to biological and material well being. Relatedness refers to the desire for interpersonal relationships. Lastly, growth needs are those that involve continued personal development and growth (Schermerhorn, p.112).ERG theory allows for more than one need to be activated at a time, also it includes the important idea of "frustration-regression". When a higher order need for development and growth is not being met, a frustrated employee may regress to a lower order need such as salary, benefits and working conditions.The Abraham Maslow theory of NeedsIn the late 1960's Abraham Maslow developed a hierarchical theory of human needs. Maslow was a humanistic psychologist who believed that people are not controlled by mechanical forces (the stimuli and reinforcement forces of behaviorism) or unconscious instinctual impulses of psychoanalysis alone. Maslow focused on human potential, believing that humans strive to reach the highest levels of their capabilities. Some people reach higher levels of creativity, of consciousness and wisdom. People at this level were labeled by other psychologists as "fully functioning" or possessing a "healthy personality". Maslow had a more appropriate term for these people "self-actualizing".Maslow set up a hierarchical theory of needs in which all the basic needs are at the bottom, and the needs concerned with man's highest potential are at the top. The hierarchic theory is often represented as a pyramid, with the larger, lower levels representing the lower needs, and the upper point representing the...

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