This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Evaluate The Contribution Psychological Research Has Made Towards Our Understanding Of How Children From Birth To Five Learn And Develop Competencies In The Processes Of Observation, Problem Solving, Exploration,

3252 words - 14 pages

Evaluate the contribution psychological research has made towards our understanding of how children from birth to five learn and develop competencies in the processes of observation, problem solving, exploration, experimentation and prediction, thinking and decision making.
The aim of this essay is to evaluate the developmental theories of ‘Problem Solving, Reasoning and Numeracy’ (PSRN) and an ‘Exploration and Investigation’ aspect of ‘Knowledge and Understanding of the World’ (KUW) in Foundation stage children. This essay will explore Piaget and Vygotsky and their points of view on PSRN and issues which arise from development and it will consider current research and ...view middle of the document...

The ‘Laissez-Faire’ model of learning gives children opportunities for exploration and choice. This concept is supported by Piaget who thought that through children’s interactions with the environment they explore and experiment with their learning (social constructivist model of learning). However, this exploration lacks adult input, which can limit children’s mathematical competencies. It could be observed in practice that within this approach some children may not reach their full understanding of counting skills. The problem is emphasised by the fact that learning numbers might take place by rote to include learning how to count from one to ten or by undertaking repetitious activities within practice (Palaiologou 2010). Young children develop one-to-one principle, abstraction principle and order irrelevance principle when counting, singing number songs and playing games and as children grow older adults encourage children’s understanding of one-to-one correspondence and developing counting skills by asking, for example, that they make sure there is one cup for every child at snack time. The EYFS (DCFS 2008 p.66, p.68) also recognises that children: “16-26 months gain awareness of one-to-one correspondence through categorising belongings, starting with mine or Mummy’s” and 40-60 months children are able to “select the correct numeral to represent 1 to 5, then 1 to 9 objects”. The real problem is when learning to count assembles information and children may not learn or comprehend what they are doing (Downs cited in Palaiologou 2010). This demonstrates that without the ‘Transmission’ model of learning or adult help, learning to count and number development may transform mathematical concepts into an area that depends upon memory rather than children’s understanding of it. . The KUW (DCFS 2008) also states that children use others as sources of information and learning therefore it is clear that children need an adult support.
Piaget thought that adults should keep children curious, make them wonder, and offer children real problem-solving challenges, rather than giving them information (Mooney 2000). The KUW (DCFS 2008) recognises that children explore, play and look for meaning in their experiences. Carruthrs (2010) supports Piaget thinking by suggesting that in order for children to engage and understand maths concepts, they must explore their own thinking and not be given adult-set practical mathematical tasks. Constructing knowledge by making mistakes is part of the normal process of children’s problem solving (Britz 1993). Babies and children make learning personal and meaningful through exploring, then experimenting, trying out a hypothesis, and solving problems. Within practice in a free flow play children use the thinking processes to decide, imagine, reason, predict, plan and try new strategies. These processes are required for later mathematical thinking (Pound 2006). One of the concept through which children develop their problem...

Other Essays Like Evaluate the Contribution Psychological Research Has Made Towards Our Understanding of How Children from Birth to Five Learn and Develop Competencies in the Processes of Observation, Problem Solving, Exploration,

Assess the Contribution of Functionalist Sociologist to Our Understanding of the Family

725 words - 3 pages Assess the contribution of functionalist sociologist to our understanding of the family Functionalists believe that society is based on a value consensus into which society socialises its members, which enables to cooperate harmoniously and meet society’s needs and goals. Functionalist’s sees that society is made up of a range of different sub-systems which depend on each other, and that society needs these functions or order for survival and

Assess the Contribution of Feminist Perspectives to Our Understanding of Society (33 Marks)

1791 words - 8 pages Assess the contribution of feminist perspectives to our understanding of society (33 marks) Feminists see society as patriarchal. They seek to describe, explain and change the position of women within society. The first ‘wave’ of feminism appeared in the late 19th century with the suffragette’s campaign for the right for women to vote. Even though all feminists oppose women’s subordination, there are disagreements on its causes and how to

In understanding our social world we act as “intuitive scientists”. Evaluate this proposition drawing upon relevant psychological research

1520 words - 7 pages In understanding our social world we act as “intuitive scientists”. Evaluate this proposition drawing upon relevant psychological research. People seek ‘truths’ in a logical and rational way (as cited in Buchanan et al, 2007, p.106). Social psychologists view people as intuitive scientists from the early stages of life; even as young children, people are constantly trying to investigate their social environment, eventually becoming

Title: Our Shrinking World - The Environmental Impact Our Growing Population Has Made

612 words - 3 pages our shrinking worldThe daily life of human beings is filled with simple concerns. The concerns are rightfully of acquisition and desire: who should matter more to the human other than the human itself? The natural drive of procreation has evolved beyond continuance of species. People now strive to fill the earth with their personal seed: they feel the need for family, and preservation of legacy. This need has boosted the human population to

How Has the Role of Women in Society Changed from the 1950's and What Has Contributed to This Change?

1363 words - 6 pages How has the role of women in society changed from the 1950’s and what has contributed to this change? Halle Craig 1,504 Words Honors US History, Kevin Keely Douglas County High School May 2010 A. Plan of Investigation How has the role of women in society changed from the 1950’s and what has contributed to this change? Themes of this investigation would be society’s reaction to the changes in the

Discuss Play in Relation to the Teaching and Learning of Problem Solving, Reasoning and Numeracy in the Early Years

2206 words - 9 pages Discuss play in relation to the teaching and learning of problem solving, reasoning and numeracy in the Early Years. Children observe and participate in maths within various settings, such as at home, nursery or school, which is carried out during day to day activities. This may vary from estimating the quantity of toothpaste to place on the toothbrush, pouring cereal to telling the time. According to Tucker (2005), children learn about

How and Why Milgram's Research on Obedience Contributed to Our Understanding of Human Behaviour

1107 words - 5 pages participants. Part 2 Report: How and why Milgram's research on obedience contributed to our understanding of human behaviour. The report aims to: • summarise the Milgram study on obedience and explain how it helped to understand human behaviour. Background: • Stanley Milgram influenced by what happened in Nazi Germany during the WW2 wanted to find out to which degree people would follow orders from authority.(Banyard, 2010

Assess Freud’s Contribution to the Sociological Understanding of ‘the Self’

3811 words - 16 pages anxious. The id is present within us from birth until we die. A new-born has no ego or super-ego yet but is solely made up of the id. The id functions according the pleasure principle and is always in pursuit of instant gratification of desires; not having in mind long-term consequences of one’s actions. It is very hard for humans to control the id’s- wishes as they are mostly unconscious ‘drives’ (Trieb). According to Freud people’s drives (or ‘urges

How Sibling Relationship Is Affected By The Psychological And Emotional Effects Of Birth Order?

2110 words - 9 pages Alfred Adler gave meaning to the relationship of the birth order of individuals to their association with different kinds of people, especially to their families. He said that Adler believed that each of us has inimitable characteristics according to our rank in the birth order. Initially, let us start the discussion with only children. Only children may have high self-esteem and may experience self-centeredness because of all the attention

Evaluate the Psychological and Biological Explanation of Aggression

2056 words - 9 pages they only see negativity feel threatened and as a result respond in aggressive manners. Social learning People may acquire aggressive behaviors through experience or observational learning processes. This provides guidelines for describing beliefs as well as expectations that channel social behaviors. The social influences such as role models, reinforcements and situational factors contribute to expression of aggressive behaviors. Children learn

Explain the Sequence and Rate of Each Aspect of Development That Would Normally Be Expected in Children and Young People from Birth – 19 Years

857 words - 4 pages Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development that would normally be expected in children and young people from birth – 19 years Birth – 1 month: Sleeps 20 hours a day Crying – main form of communication – fosters early interaction. Begins to have distinct facial expressions. Moves around more. Focuses both eyes together. Can detect smells. Sensitive to touch. Uses reflexes. Focuses on source of sound. 2 – 3 months

Related Papers

Analyse And Assess The Contribution Of Feminist Research To Our Understanding Of Society

1978 words - 8 pages society. Although feminist perspectives have helped our understanding of society it is useful to look at different perspectives such as functionalism and Marxism.Ray Pawson's research has helped our understanding of society as he distinguishes between the weak thesis and the strong thesis of feminist research methods. In terms of the weak thesis, research methods in sociology are essentially sound. But there is a problem, this is that in practice

Using Material From Item A And Elsewhere, Assess The Contribution Of Marxism To Our Understanding Of The Role Of Education

1545 words - 7 pages inequalities through the generations by ensuring that most working-class pupils experience educational failure. Education also legitimates this inequality, persuading the working class to accept educational and social inequalities. Other Marxists have also pointed to the existence of a hidden curriculum in schools. Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the contribution of Marxism to our understanding of the role of education. (20 marks) Marx

Using Material From Item A And Elsewhere, Asses The Contribution Of Functionalism To Our Understanding Of The Role Of Education

618 words - 3 pages about the role of education in society. The following research will focus on the role of education from a Functionalist, Marxist and an Interactionalist's perspective. Functionalists think of education as a positive function for all individuals within society, which has a powerful influence over it. The aims of education in functionalism are to maintain social stability, keep society in consensus and resolve any conflict. Durkheim and Parsons

Stanley Milgram’s Research On Obedience And His Contribution To Our Understanding Of Human Behaviour

850 words - 4 pages This report aims to illustrate how Stanley Milgram’s research into obedience to authority has influenced our understanding of human behaviour today. Background In 1961 the psychologist Stanley Milgram (1933-1984) began research on obedience to authority. Influenced by the cruelties committed in the second world war he wished to discover what made ordinary people commit evil deeds (Banyard, 2010). Milgram took forty male volunteers who