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Evolution Essay

4658 words - 19 pages

*Q: What is Evolution?
- Descent from modification
* Macro Evolution (Large Scale Evolution)
* Common Ancestor - descent of different species over many generations
* OVER LARGER TIMESCALE (ex. Speciation)
* Micro Evolution (Small Scale Evolution)
* Changes in gene (allele) frequency in population from one generation to the next
* May be over shorter time period (generations)
* BOTH OF THESE IMPLY:
* 1. Common Ancestry
* 2. Changes through time

*Natural selection occurs when 3 conditions are met; results in evolution
* 1. There is variation in a trait
* (Ex. Beetle color)
* 2. The trait is heritable
* ...view middle of the document...

* Big: given genotype can range from small to large size, depending on the environment
* Small: Given genotype always looks the same, regardless of the environment

EVOLUTION CAN OCCUR IN THE ABSENCE OF NATURAL SELECTION

*5 Causes of change in allele frequency in a population
1. Natural selection
2. Migration- gene flow occurs into or out of the population
* Can alter allele and genotype frequencies
3. Non-random mating- mating is not random with respect to genotypes; ex. Some genotype might not mate
4. Genetic Drift: random change in allele (gene) frequencies from generation to generation most often occurs with small population size
* Chance events can alter allele and genotype frequencies, esp. with small population size. (The smaller a sample, the greater the chance of genetic drift)
* Absolutely random- some genotypes reproduce because they got lucky, not because they are better/more fit
* It leads to:
* Random fixation of alleles
* Some alleles just drift out of the population
* Loss of Heterozygosity

5. Mutation: creates new alleles occurs in low frequency; usually import only in combo with other forces
* Alone produces little change in allele and genotype frequencies

*Basic Mendelian genetics
* Segregation (Law of Segregation)
* 2 alleles for the same gene will separate during gamete formation (meiosis)- an egg or sperm gets only 1 allele for each gene
* Independent assortment
* During gamete formation (Meiosis), pairs of alleles at one gene assort independently of pairs of alleles are other genes; applies to 2 genes relative to each other
*History of ideas on evolution:
* Jean-Baptiste Lamarck:
* Simple forms exist because of spontaneous generation
* All species are derived by gradual evolution from other species
* Process driven by inheritance of acquired characteristics
* Alfred Russell Wallace
* Independently discovered theory of evolution by natural selection
* Work in islands off S.E Asia
* Illustrated Batesian mimicry in South American Butterflies
* Charles Darwin, Theory of evolution by natural selection
* Knowledge of results of artificial selection in plant, animal breeding
* Voyage of the HMS Beagle, 1831
* Lacked understanding of genetics
* Key concepts of Darwin’s Ideas (4)
* Descent with modification- current species are descendants of ancestral species
* Gradualism- Differences evolve incrementally
* Populations change through time in the proportions of individuals with different traits, not by transformation of individuals
* Natural Selection: is a process that may results in evolution
* Darwin’s theory (Postulates) of evolution by Natural Selection (4)- “Modern Synthesis or Evolutionary Synthesis”
* Variation-
*...

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