Evolution, Problems and Future of
Contents.- Before the industrial revolution. Industrial revolution and after it. Problems of the humanity. Problems within the humanity. .
About the future.
Before the industrial revolution.
The life of primitive humans, hunters and gatherers, could not differ much from that of animals. It may be supposed that they lived in not very large groups of related people guided by the most capable of them. They must have defended from other groups a territory sufficient to maintain their life. If it ceased to be sufficient, the group or part of it must have gone away to look for some other available, ...view middle of the document...
In comparison, the life of farmers and artisans was more comfortable and secure. Therefore, expansion of agriculture and handicraft was accompanied by certain acceleration of the increase of population and by its concentration in villages and then towns. At the same time, humanity became discriminated into the subdued poor majority, which produced, and the dominant opulent minority, which consumed. This division was accepted as natural, of divine will. The growth of population was not continuous. Increased density of population, particularly in towns, and the network of established terrestrial and maritime connections favored worldwide pandemias that from time to time exterminated considerable parts of it.
Satisfaction of human needs requires energy. At first, its only source was the human labor. However, progress of the evolution needed more and more energy. The main source of it became the domesticated animals; especially horses were used in agriculture, in manufacture and for the transportation of people and goods. Energy of currents of water and of the wind also served for milling grain and in manufacture; that of wind also for propulsion of vessels by sails. Energy of fire was of use for cooking, heating, lighting and in manufacture. The almost only fuel during the most part of that period of evolution was wood. Wood was also one of the most important materials for construction and for manufacture. At the same time forests were (and continue to be) felled and burnt, mainly to clear space for agriculture. So began the reduction of the surface occupied by forests, which never stopped. It was not the first break of the balance in the biosphere caused by the human population. Disappearance of animals of hunted species and the consequent lack of food may have contributed to the arrival of agriculture
Industrial revolution and after it.
Mechanization of production and replacement of the power of living beings in agriculture, manufacture and transportation by obtained from inanimate sources began in United Kingdom. The first textile mills, water powered, were constructed in eighteenth century. Near the end of it, they were replaced by the steam powered. With it began the accelerated process of development and expansion of the industrialization. At the beginning of the next century started production of machine tools for metals and transport by railway, then came ships moved by vapor, petroleum, motors of internal combustion and automobiles, generation and use of electricity. In the twenties came aviation, electric and electronic communication, synthetic materials, nuclear energy, cosmic voyages, electro domestic equipment, unimaginable scientific and military things. The novelty was invention of the computer, a device that instead of physical labor replaced very efficiently the mental.
At 2007, the world population was about 6,600,000,000. At 2010, it may become about 6,800,000,000. It is estimated that at...