Exam I Study Guide
1. What does the study of biology refer to?
2. What are the seven properties that we associate with life? Understand what each of them mean and be able to recognize examples.
3. What is life’s hierarchy of organization? Know the levels, know the levels in order, and know what each level includes or does not include (this is a big one).
4. What is a cell?
a. How do prokaryotic cells differ from eukaryotic cells? How are they similar? Know characteristics of both types of cells!
5. Understand how organisms exchange matter and energy.
b. What is the role of sunlight? What are producers vs. consumers?
c. What ...view middle of the document...
1. What is matter? An element? An atom? A compound? A molecule? Know the differences between these terms!
2. What are the elements most essential to life? What are trace elements (examples of trace elements)?
3. Know the subatomic particles! For each one (electrons, protons, and neutrons), you should be able to state their charge and their mass.
a. What do atomic number and mass number (or atomic mass) represent? Be able to find these values on a periodic table and determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons of any given element.
4. What are isotopes? Radioactive isotopes?
b. What are the dangers of radioactive isotopes?
c. How can we use radioactive isotopes for medical diagnoses/treatments?
5. Understand electron shell diagrams (as at the bottom of p. 22). This includes how many electrons can fit in each energy level. Be able to determine how many valence electrons a particular element has, given a periodic table.
6. What are chemical bonds?
d. Contrast covalent bonds and ionic bonds. What are they and how do the differ?
i. What are ions? How do ions form? Using a periodic table, you should be able to state the charge of a particular ion. For example, you should be able to tell that magnesium forms a 2+ ion (called a cation because it’s positive).
e. Understand the difference between nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. What role does electronegativity play? How do nonpolar molecules interact with polar molecules? How do polar molecules interact with other polar molecules? How do polar molecules interact with ionic compounds?
7. You should be able to determine how many covalent bonds a particular nonmetal can form.
8. How do hydrogen bonds form? How does their strength compare to the strength of covalent or ionic bonds? Do hydrogen bonds form within a molecule OR between molecules (or between parts of very large molecules)?
9. What happens during a chemical reaction? What are reactants? Products? Looking at an equation for a chemical reaction (e.g., 2H2 + O2 2H2O), be able to identify the reactants vs. the products.
10. Know major life-supporting properties of water!
f. What are cohesion and adhesion? What is surface tension? What allows water to partake in these phenomena? What roles do cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension play related to life (a few examples)?
g. What is evaporative cooling? How does water help to moderate body temperature? What is specific heat and how does water’s specific heat compare to
h. Why is ice less dense than liquid water? Is this normal for a solid vs. a liquid?
i. Understand the terms solvent, solute, and aqueous solution. Why does water act as a good solvent to polar solutes? Does water act as a good solvent to nonpolar solutes? Why or why not? Understand how solutes dissolve in water.
j. Distinguish between...