Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development that would normally be expected in children and young people from birth – 19 years
Birth – 1 month:
Sleeps 20 hours a day
Crying – main form of communication – fosters early interaction.
Begins to have distinct facial expressions.
Moves around more.
Focuses both eyes together.
Can detect smells.
Sensitive to touch.
Focuses on source of sound.
2 – 3 months:
Visual and oral exploration.
Cries, coos and grunts.
Smiles at a face – social smiling.
Imitates some movements and facial expressions.
Begins to realize he/she is a separate person from others.
Can be comforted by a ...view middle of the document...
Conscience starts to appear.
Groups objects by category.
Points to common objects when they are named.
Recounts events that happened that day.
Assertive about his/her preferences.
Displays aggressive feelings/behaviours.
Shows awareness of gender identity.
3 – 4 years:
Theory of mind – understanding of how the mind works and how it influences behaviour.
Likes to share.
Plays with other children.
Practices gender role activities.
Curiosity – asks many why and how questions.
Begins dramatic play – acting out whole scenes.
Shows awareness of past and present.
Uses and understands sentences.
Can sing a song.
4 – 5 years:
Uses adult sounds.
Uses more complex grammar.
Reads a story.
Prefers sex appropriate activities.
Can draw, name and describe pictures.
Shows some understanding of moral reasoning.
Compares himself/herself to others.
Expresses more awareness of other people’s feelings.
Retells a story.
Understands the sequencing of events when clearly explained.
Enjoys imaginative play with other children.
6 – 12 years:
Common fears include the unknown, failure, family problems, rejection and death.
Friends are most commonly the same sex.
Begins to see others’ point of view more clearly.
Defines himself/herself in terms of appearance, possessions and activities.
Tattling – a common way to attract adult attention.
Feelings get easily hurt.
Needs about 10 hours of sleep a night.
Begins to think about his/her own behaviour and see consequences.
Can talk through problems to solve them.
12 – 14 years:
Trying to find his/her identity.
Rapid body changes from puberty (girls mature before boys.
Greater interest in privacy.
Can express himself/herself better.