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Explain What Constitutes The Physical And Psychological Needs Of A Three Year Old Child. Explain How These Needs Can Ideally Be Met In A Childcare Setting

2356 words - 10 pages

Children have needs that need to be fulfilled to remain healthy. The WHO definition of health is a “state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity” (MCI undated c pp1). This essay will look at how Early child care settings can fulfil specific physical needs of exercise, rest, nutrition and health and safety of a three year old. It will also look at how settings can fulfil the psychological needs of a three year old including attachment, self esteem, self worth and friendship. Lastly the essay will look at how the Early Years Foundation Stage Statutory Framework (EYFS), 2012 can be implemented in order to maintain the health ...view middle of the document...

For a carer to fulfil the physical needs of a child they need to prepare both an indoor and outdoor environment in which a child can move freely around and choose simulating activities without fear for their safety (MCI undated b pp5). Carers must ensure they either schedule time for children to undergo physical activity. Carers should support children by acknowledging any attempt at physical development whether successful or not and encourage children to develop their physical skills at a pace they are comfortable with (MCI undated b pp5). In allowing children to move freely around the environment the setting needs to be free of any danger and carers need to undertake regular risk assessments to ensure this (BAECE 2012).

A carer must provide an environment in which children are able to care for themselves safely. An example of this is access to child sized bathrooms and sinks (BAECE 2012). Carers should model and teach children when and how to use equipment correctly then encourage children to take responsibility for their own needs (MCI undated b pp5). Carers should talk about how and why we look after our bodies, highlighting consequences for not doing so (BAECE 2012). Carers should also ensure that classrooms are correctly ventilated and that all children have sufficient fresh air and wear appropriate clothing to allow for comfort during physical activities (MCI undated c pp10).

To fulfil the nutritional needs of children a carer needs to be aware of what makes up a healthy diet. To do this carers should be aware of the main nutrient groups and should endeavour to include food from each group when plaining meals and snacks (MCI undated c pp 36-44). Carers should also be aware of any allergies, intolerances, and cultural or religious dietary restrictions within the children in their care and be able to plan healthy meals and snacks around these (Macleod-Brudenell, L & Kay, J. 2008 pp243-247 ). The EYFS (DfE 2012) encourage making meal time a social experience; an opportunity to further children's motor, and social skills whilst highlighting the importance of healthy eating.

Psychological needs are the inherent motivation of a human to interact with the environment in order to undertake challenges that are interesting and enjoyable (Reeve 2009 pg 142-143). Bowlby suggests that in order to survive infants use innate attachment behaviours to remain close to caregivers (MCI undated a ch3). In order to belong and participate children must learn through social interaction a range of emotions, and skills to manage these emotions in a socially acceptable way (MCI undated a pp125). Children must also have a positive view of themselves in order to develop high self esteem; which allows the child to become a competent member of a group (Macleod-Brudenell&Kay 2008 pp111).

According to Ansiworth (Macleod-Brudenell&Kay 2008 pp99-104) children of age three need a secure base or attachment to their main caregiver/s from which they can...

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