Explanation And Analysis Of Stoic Philosophy

2037 words - 9 pages

Explanation and Analysis of Stoic Philosophy
Stoicism is, without a doubt, one of the most widely misunderstood schools of Philosophy ever established and followed by a wide number of people. The common opinion of Stoic adherents is that they are merely cold, somber individuals dedicated to the idea that happiness is evil, emotion is to be avoided at all costs and pleasure is wicked. Although they do stress control over strong emotions and that pleasure is not the sole end of life, this is a gross misunderstanding of Stoicism. According to Dr. Zeno Breuninger, "Stoics believe a person is born with everything he needs." The Stoic seeks to ...view middle of the document...

Where Aristotle would say, "All humans are mortal," the Stoics would phrase it "If some person is human then that person is mortal"(Fieser). This method, later developed by modern logicians such as Bertrand Russell, is the logic of propositions, where a statement is true if it can be reduced to one of the five in demonstrable forms of the If-Then statement, and is considered one of the greatest Stoic contributions(Stanford;Ecole).
In the realm of Metaphysics, Stoics were essentially materialists(Ecole). They adopted from Plato the idea that reality is marked by the ability to act or be acted upon. To this they added that only a body can do this. "Thus, only bodies exist"(Stanford). God must, then, be material. The Stoic vision of God is as a Cosmic order, also referred to as Reason, Logos, and a Creative Fire(Ecole). The Stoic God is, then, Pantheistic, one with the universe. Matter is inert, there to be acted upon by this universal plan. This plan is crafted from the inside, and God acts not as external deity but as a living seed from which the universal order is grown(Stanford).
The Stoics identified with the belief, in vogue at the time, that matter is composed of four elements: earth, fire, air, and water. Fire and air were considered to be active, whereas water and earth were labeled passive. Fire and air, the active elements, combine to form pneuma or breath. This pneuma has a constant simultaneous inward and outward movement that holds matter together and yields it the qualities which it possesses. Pneuma is an interesting concept: It acts upon things, so must be a body, yet it is one with other bodies in the same place at the same time. This blending was apparently allowed by Stoic philosophy, and was necessary as the Pneuma also seemed to serve the function of the soul in higher animals, and take care of bodily functions in both plants and animals(Stanford) thus the soul was both material and one with the physical body.
Another concept set forth in Stoic metaphysics is known as eternal recurrence. This is the idea that the universe repeats itself, that everything is a continuous cycle that completely and exactly repeats. One will, in each successive cycle, be the exact same person he is in the current cycle. Each cycle will begin and end with the same creative fire that began the process, and the other three elements are added into the creation process accordingly(Fieser).
When considering Stoicism, it seems epistemology is generally grouped with logic. According to Fieser, this was the way Zeno considered that they should be. This idea is echoed by other sources as well by the organization of their research. Stoics did not believe in abstract universals such as those proposed by Plato and Aristotle. "Only particular things exist, and our knowledge of them is based on impressions they make upon the soul"(Ecole). Thus, knowledge depends on sensation, for the soul is material. Knowledge comes from giving...

Other Essays Like Explanation And Analysis Of Stoic Philosophy

Evolution and philosophy have a relationship as old as the idea of evolution itself

261 words - 2 pages This is partly due to the fact that science and philosophy only separated about the time evolutionary theories were being first proposed, but also because - especially in the Darwinian context - evolution was opposed to many cherished philosophical doctrines.The first main criticisms of evolution lay in the idea that species were eternal types, and so by definition species could not change. More recently, criticisms have rested on the notion of

Analysis of Coke and Facebook

1880 words - 8 pages Coca-Cola Supply Chain Management & Coca-Cola Facebook Analysis Dr. R. LeWayne Johnson Importance of Standardization in Supply Chain Management Supply Chain Management (SCM) according to May School of Business at Texas A&M University is defined as the strategic management of supply chain activities to maximize customer value and achieve a sustainable includes all the activities that must take place to get the right product into the

How Does Hountondji Define African Philosophy and Why Does He Think His Definition Is Free of Theoretical Presuppositions

2452 words - 10 pages development of an acceptable African philosophy because of its basic assumptions and uncritical acceptance. The history of African philosophy since then has been largely the history of our succeeding interpretations of the collective ‘philosophy’, this world –view which has assumed to be pre-determined, and to underpin all African traditions and behaviour, and which analysis Africans must now modestly set out to unravel. (2002:128). Hountondji further

Second Book of Sound and Fury Analysis

619 words - 3 pages In Quentin’s chapter of The Sound and the Fury, William Faulkner introduces Quentin to four unfamiliar children, three young, boisterous fishers and a helpless Italian girl, who symbolize the Compson children to reveal Quentin’s attitude towards his own relationships with his siblings and himself. The three boys speak amongst each other, which while not happening in reality between the Compson brothers, occurs in context of the novel, as each

Residue Analysis of Food and Drinking

1229 words - 5 pages Residue Analysis of Food and Drinking When ancient people engaged in daily activities, there must be some “footprints” or human traces left behind. May it be the processing of food, manufacturing of tools, burning of plants, using of herbs or worshiping of their ancestors, residues were formed from a variety of events. As a result of these residues, archeologists are taking advantage of the advanced technologies available, along with

Carrie-an Analysis of Novel and Film

1805 words - 8 pages writing the events in an epistolary form in order to add much more detail and in my opinion, to authenticate his depiction of the events that transpire. He uses articles written by therapists and psychologists as tools of reference, which are not presented in the movie. This could be for several reasons. One explanation could be the length of time the extra information would have added to the film version. Perhaps another reason could be a lack of

Film Analysis of Akeelah and the Bee

1788 words - 8 pages Running head: FILM ANALYSIS OF AKEELAH AND THE BEE 1 Film Analysis of Akeelah and the Bee Miranda Clark (5568546) Word Count: 1561 Brock University Running head: FILM ANALYSIS OF AKEELAH AND THE BEE 2 This film is about an 11 year old girl by the name of Akeelah Anderson who has a hidden talent of being a really great speller. However her environment around her seems to interfere with her ability to be more independent and focus

Analysis Of Northrop Grumman And Raytheon

1472 words - 6 pages Introduction The purpose of this company analysis is to discover why one company would be better to invest in over the other. The analysis is based on two competing companies within the same industry. While these two companies compare in products and services, they do not relate in overall size. To assist in making an educating decision, many areas of each company were looked at. A comprehensive financial ratio analysis was completed for

Swot Analysis of Marks and Spencer

1054 words - 5 pages globally. The core values of M&S are quality, value, service, innovation and trust (Marks and Spencer group plc 2011). The group is one of the leading brands in the United Kingdom in the category of clothing, food and home ware. A general SWOT analysis strategy conducted on the company reveals the major areas of concern and attention required for the organisation is given below. Strengths • Strong market position and reputation. In terms of

Situation and Gap Analysis of Kuiper Leda

2265 words - 10 pages Running head: GAP ANALYSIS: KUIPER LEDA Gap Analysis: Kuiper Leda C. McKinney University of Phoenix Resource Optimization MBA550 Murray R. Millet February 9, 2009 Gap Analysis: Kuiper Leda Kuiper Leda Inc., in the Republic of Novamia is an electric components manufacturer. It specializes in the production of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) and sensors for the automotive industry. Its clients include automobile manufacturers

Swot Analysis of Holland and Barrett

1973 words - 8 pages CONTENTS Page(s) 1. Introduction 2. Company Background 3. Swot Analysis 4. Strengths 5. Weaknesses 6. Opportunities 7. Threats 8. Recommendation/ Conclusion APA Referencing 1 1 1–2 3-4 5-6 7 8-9 10 10 - 12 1.0 Introduction The purpose of this report is to identify the factors found in the internal and external environments that could affect Holland and Barrett, a franchise brought to Singapore by the Jay Gee Melwani Group. 2.0 Company

Related Papers

Outline And Evaluate One Psychological Explanation And One Biological Explanation Of An Eating Disorder. [24 Marks]

1049 words - 5 pages Outline and evaluate one psychological explanation and one biological explanation of an eating disorder. [24 marks] Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterised by recurrent binge-eating followed by self-induced vomiting or another compensatory behaviour (purging). One psychological explanation of bulimia nervosa is the functional model which was created by Polivy et al. in 1994. This model suggests that individuals engage in the

Evaluate The Psychological And Biological Explanation Of Aggression

2056 words - 9 pages QUESTION 2 OUTLINE AND EVALUATE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND BIOOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF AGGRESSION(500 - 700 WORDS) One social psychological explanation of aggression is deindividuation theory. it proposes that when individuals are put into a ‘group or crowd setting’ then they lose their sense of individuality and take on a crowd mentality.this would allow them to behave in a way that would be unnatural if they were on their own, but as they

Evaluate The Postmodernist Explanation Of The Role And Function Of Religion In Contemporary Society. (40 Marks)

1096 words - 5 pages Evaluate the postmodernist explanation of the role and function of religion in contemporary society. (40 marks) According to postmodernists such as Foucault we live in a ‘post-modern’ world, where none of the accepted theories or ‘truths’ or ‘narratives’ can be relied on. One really big narrative is that of religion, which postmodernist refer to as ‘meta-narratives’ (the grand explanations or big stories of modern society

Interpretation And Summary Of Descartes' 1st And 2 Meditations From "Meditations On First Philosophy"

2566 words - 11 pages Descartes: The First and Second MeditationsRene Descartes begins Meditations on First Philosophy by explaining his basic purpose and how he plans on going about accomplishing this project. Descartes hopes to discover truth and justify human knowledge and belief. In order to find the fundamental truths of life, Descartes believes he must start from scratch so that he may discern truth from false beliefs. All of Descartes' beliefs, everything he