Extending Core Science
F.A.O. SeÃ¡n Doyle
Outdoor learning provides great opportunities for students to become motivated to learning. It can offer a contrast to the usual indoor classroom learning environment. Outdoor experiences can help students to become stimulated sparking off fascination, and breakthroughs in their personal learning, (IOL, 2010).
It is suggested by Salford City Council (2003) that, â€˜educational trips and visits provide a valuable opportunity for young people to participate in positive experiences, which are not available to them in the classroom, or youth centre. These trips and visits can enable young ...view middle of the document...
This suggests that these pupils will have some knowledge of cloning.
Most KS2 pupils are aware of cloning and some of the issues around it due to media coverage. Over recent years there have been many breakthroughs in animal cloning, the biggest one being the first successful mammal cloning of â€˜Dolly the sheepâ€™ in 1997. Since then smaller clones have been created. Seven years after the death of â€˜Dolly the sheepâ€™ the scientist who cloned her, has now cloned her again as quadruplets, these clones are the exact genetic replicas as â€˜Dollyâ€™. Pupils will now be aware of this through the media and may ask questions about this (Highfield, 2010). Pupils could discuss the fact that Dolly died some years ago and is now living as quadruplets.
Cloning can seem to be a relative new discovery, but since the early 20th century, it has been applied to botany, when talking about plants, (UNESCO, 2004). While many plants clone themselves naturally to reproduce, people can clone plants simply by taking a cutting of the plant and re-planting it, (CSIRO, No Date). So why are there issues in animal and human cloning?
Some of the ethical issues surrounding this topic sprouted from the successful cloning of Dolly the sheep, as this provoked the possibility that very soon, human cloning could be possible. This has motivated the debate of â€˜should humans be able to play God?â€™
Cloning violates some religious beliefs of how human reproductions (Sc2) should occur. Some religious organisations believe that human cloning is wrong. This is mainly because they believe that God made man and if human cloning comes about, God will no longer be doing this. Christians believe in particular that if human cloning happens, man will be able to state what features they want and therefore design the â€œperfectâ€ human, this also reminds Christians of Hitler and Nazi Germany, and his cruelty in trying to make the perfect race (Phillips, 2009).
After the cloning of Dolly the sheep, the Cloning Act 2000 came in to place stating that it would be illegal to use cloning for reproductive purposes in humans. The Cloning Act defines this as â€˜the implantation of an embryo created by any means other than fertilisationâ€™ (Janson-Smith, 2002)
Where Cloning Fits in to the KS2 Curriculum
As pupils will be learning about cloning (Sc2) later in the Key Stage 3 curriculum this could be used as a bridging project. This would give pupils background knowledge of cloning as it is suggested by Moses (1990), that students learn better when they have a basic knowledge of the topic before learning more about it. This project would also ensure a successful transition from primary to secondary schools. Cloning would fit in to the Key Stage 2 curriculum while or after looking at reproduction of plants and animals, as this may give a different â€˜optionâ€™ to reproduction.
Approaches for out of classroom learning
One approach that could be used when studying this topic is...